Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Competition Law in Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Competition Law in Business - Essay Example Ilovemoneyalot, a telecommunication firm has a bigger market share as compared to other competitors such as Alfa and Beta. The move by the CEO of Ilovemoneyalot telecommunication to lure the other businesses to lower their prices of their products and services is against the competition laws. This is undertaking the dominant position the company enjoys to foreclose the market whereby the growth of other businesses will be limited. In Turkey, Competition Act, it prohibits the abuse by business undertaking of their dominant position. The abuse can take both the vertical and the horizontal form. According to the Act, a vertical agreement is the agreements carried out by business undertaking at different levels of production or distribution chain in order to produce or sell goods and services. Intellectual and Artistic work Act governs the rights of any musical or artwork done by someone from copyright infringements. It is intended to establish and safeguard moral and economic rights of the authors who create these artistic or intellectual works. In this case, Arthur, the songwriter and singer of â€Å"Beautiful Maria of My Life† did presents his song to his lover as present during her birthday. The girlfriend goes ahead to reproduce the song to the shock of Arthur. According to the Act, performing the song at part of the birthday party to Arthur’s girlfriend did not transfer intellectual or artistic rights and hence can sue for the copyright.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Truth in Management and Power Relationships Essay Example for Free

Truth in Management and Power Relationships Essay Throughout history, philosophers have come up with their versions of the actual definition for ‘truth’. The Greek philosopher Aristotle had explained truth as â€Å"To say of what is that it is not, or of what is not that it is, is false, while to say of what is that it is, and of what is not that it is not, is true† [1]. Aristotle explains that truth can be described as that something that is definite and distinct in its own form, nature or identity. Another Greek sophist and philosopher Protagoras held the view that â€Å"man is the measure of all things, of things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not†[2]. According to him, every person’s opinion of truth is based his or her own perception of truth. In the famous Greek poet Homer’s epic Odyssey, there is one instance when the Greek hero Odysseus did not actually reveal the truth when he says â€Å"I will tell you all the truth†[3]. In his epics, there are characters that hold back information or tell lies. In the present day management, we have to be cautious as to how we go about telling the truth to our subordinates or colleagues. There are multiple scenarios that we have to consider before revealing the truth. Sometimes, we may end up in situations whereby we have to cover up the truth to protect our integrity and position in the company or organization. Socrates, an Athenian Greek Philosopher once quoted: â€Å"You, my friend, are you not ashamed of heaping up the greatest amount of money and honour and reputation, and caring so little about wisdom and truth and the greatest improvement of yourself which you never regard or heed at all? [2]† We can relate to his quote in today’s fast paced times, when in the quest for power, wealth and reputation, we tend to forget our very basic virtues of being righteous and truthful. I can quote an example of my personal experience whilst working in a semiconductor company where my supervisor and colleague were from Philippines. I used to have reservations initially in opening up to my colleagues and then as the months passed, I started confiding with my Filipino colleague regarding a couple of problems I had with the company management style and extremely long working hours. He then later betrayed the faith that I had in him when he passed on all the complaints over to my supervisor behind my back. Since then, the company management started to ignore my inputs and started giving me disapproving eyes at every meeting. The lesson we can learn from that was to ensure that certain truths however cumbersome they may be to carry around, we have to ensure that they stay hidden away due to the competitiveness and lack of trust among employees in today’s management. The Greek philosopher Plato once said â€Å"You should not honor men more than truth[4]† but in today’s world of management, the key areas of output and performance are valued more highly than the truthful principles at work. Power relationships play a very important role in management in the present day. These relationships have taken on a very aggressive dimension nowadays with the current crop of power hungry managers. In my opinion, we need to build such relationships with our colleagues as well as our superiors to firstly sustain ourselves for the long run and then to ensure that we maintain a steady progress throughout our careers. From my personal experience while working with my previous employer, I used to notice that my team consisted of mainly Filipinos, Indians, Malaysians and Chinese. They used to split up into their respective nationality groups and stay together always while doing work and used to provide assistance and useful advice only to their countrymen when in need. Those groups kept trying out negative organizational politics against each other to ensure that none of them could grow in the company so as to attain overall power. The organizational politics at my company even went upto the higher management where in the promotions were dedicated only to their respective countrymen and was not based on ability or performance. The higher management even had absolute control of the human resource (HR) department whereby the hiring of new staff was prioritized based on nationality of the hiring manager or supervisor rather than giving priority to the qualification and experience of the new recruits. Quoting from Plato, â€Å"The measure of a man is what he does with power[4]†, in management terms, his words signify that a true ability of a manager can only be determined by how he utilizes his power effectively in the context of an organizational environment. The Greek Philosopher Socrates had once said: â€Å"Esteemed friend, citizen of Athens, the greatest city in the world, so outstanding in both intelligence and power, arent you ashamed to care so much to make all the money you can, and to advance your reputation and prestigewhile for truth and wisdom and the improvement of your soul you have no care or worry[2]†. This quotation is apt in describing the insatiable need for wealth among the Athenians in those days for gaining reputation and prestige at the cost of their moral values like truth and wisdom. Socrates’ words can even be applied with respect to today’s management style. In the current times, taking into account the fallout from the financial crisis and its impact on the organizations, managers get even more reluctant to follow the truthful ideologies and instead strongly engage in strengthening their power relationships with other hierarchical members within their organizations to establish a strong foothold for themselves in the industry. References: 1. Owens, J., Doctrine of Being in the Aristotelian Metaphysics. 3rd ed1978, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. 2. Spillane, R. , An Eye For An I: Living Philosophy2007, Melbourne: Michelle Anderson Publishing. 3. Thiselton, A. C. , The New international dictionary of New Testament theology, ed. B. Colin. Vol. 3. 1978, Exeter: Paternoster Press. 4. Stavropoulos, S. , The Beginning of All Wisdom: Timeless Advice from the Ancient Greeks. 1st ed2003: Da Capo Press.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Stereotype of Politicians Breaking Promises Essay -- Politics Politica

The Promise Trap 28 September 1999 A common complaint about politicians--so common it's a stereotype--is that they break their promises. Audiences hear one thing, the politician seems to do another, and then the complaining begins. This scenario could be the result of miscommunication on the part of the politician or misinterpretation on the part of the audience. But the reality is more complex. Politicians do make promises, although they rarely use the word as the verb and themselves as the subject of the sentence. And audiences do hear promises being made and have a right to expect action if the concept of a promise still creates a bond, or a contract, between the one who promises and the one promised. Listen carefully, and you will hear the politicians running for the various presidential nominations making promises. Often, they will sound/read something like this promise from a recent speech by Steve Forbes: "Under my plan, that money is your money. If you die prematurely, you can leave it to your spouse, to your children, to your grandchildren - tax-free and untouched by the politicians. That's the moral thing to do, and that's the promise of a Forbes Administration." Here Forbes is talking about a plan to create more wealth for retirement. As the quote clearly states, this money would pass from generation to generation tax free. The pronoun "that" at the beginning of the first independent clause of the third sentence refers to the situation of the money passing on tax free--so this passing is the "moral" thing to do. The second "that" in the second independent clause is a tricky because it could refer to the same situation as the first clause, or it could refer a general moral situation that Forbes hopes t... ...ow going in that, in most cases, they cannot deliver specific promises. Yet they promise anyway in roundabout ways meant to create the contract in the minds of the audience while leaving an out when the "unhappy" outcome happens. Austin is clear about what he thinks of situations such as these. As he says: "'I promise' entails 'I ought'...to say 'I promise' but not to perform the act is parallel to saying both 'it is' and 'it is not.' Just as the purpose of assertion is defeated by an internal contradiction, the purpose of a contract is defeated if we say 'I promise and I ought not'" (51). Black is white. Night is day. Welcome to doublespeak. Works Cited Austin, J. L. How to Do Things With Words. Urmson, J. O. and Marina Sbisa, eds. Harvard UP, Cambridge, MA: 1975. DiClerico, Robert E. The American President. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1995.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

FIR Filter Design

The objective of this project is to use three different design methods to design a low-pass filter that meets specifications given, and then compare these three different methods through different parameters. In this project, seven filters should be designed using Matlab. And we compare them on worst case gain, largest tap weight coefficient, maximal passband and stopband error, magnitude frequency response, impulse response, group delay and zeros/poles location. Finally, use these filters to do filtering, and then compare their responses to the predicted one. Discussion of Results: > Part 1: Window Method (a) Use fir1 function to synthesize an FIR that meets specifications using a boxcar window. Worst gain = 1.8372 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3694 Maximal passband error = 0.1678 Maximal stopband error = 0.0795 (b) Use Hann window to synthesize an FIR that meets specifications. Worst gain = 1.4154 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3496 Maximal passband error = 0.0052 Maximal stopband error = 0.2385 **Filter #1 is the unwindowed design, and Filter #2 is the windowed design. From the comparison above, we can see that the unwindowed design has a more critical passband and stopband edge, but the windowed one has a smaller maximal passband error as we expected. Also, the windowed one has a larger attenuation on stopband than the unwindowed one. The group delay responses of two designs are the same. (c) Use Kaiser window to synthesize an FIR that meets specifications Worst gain = 1.6900 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3500 N = 21 (which is in 20 in matlab) Maximal passband error = 0.0706 Maximal stopband error = 0.0852 ** Filter #1 is the unwindowed design, and Filter #2 is the kaiser design. From the comparison above, we can see that both designs have critical passband and stopband edges, but the kaiser one has a smaller maximal passband error as we expected. Also, the kaiser one has a smaller attenuation on stopband compare with the unwindowed one. The group delay responses of two designs are different, the Kaiser one only has 20th order, so the group delay is 10, not 11 as the unwindowed one. (d)The zeros of the three windowed designs ** Filter #1 is the â€Å"boxcar† design, and Filter #2 is the Hann design, Filter #3 is the Kaiser design. From figure above, we can see that Hann design has a zero far from unit circle, which is corresponding to the slower attenuation compared to the other two designs. The zeros of â€Å"boxcar† design are similar to the Kaiser design. > Part 2: LMS Method (a) Using Matlab's firls function to meet the original design specification. Worst gain = 1.5990 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3477 Maximal passband error = 0.0403 Maximal stopband error = 0.1137 ** Filter #1 is the 2(a) design, and Filter #2 is the â€Å"boxcar† design. From the comparison above, we can see that the â€Å"boxcar† design has a more critical passband and stopband edge, but the LMS one has a smaller maximal passband error as we expected. Also, the LMS one has a larger attenuation on stopband than the â€Å"boxcar† one. The group delay responses of two designs are the same. (b) Using Matlab's fircls1 function to meet the original design specification. Worst gain = 1.6771 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3464 Maximal passband error = 0.0516 Maximal stopband error = 0.0782 ** Filter #1 is the 2(a) design, and Filter #2 is the 2(b) design. From the comparison above, we can see that the 2(b) design has a more critical passband and stopband edge, but the 2(a) one has a smaller maximal passband error. Also, the 2(a) one has a larger attenuation on stopband than the 2(b) one. The group delay responses of two designs are the same. (c)The zeros of the two LMS designs ** Filter #1 is the 2(a) design, and Filter #2 is the 2(b) design. From figure above, we can see that 2(b) design has a zero far from unit circle, which is corresponding to the slower attenuation compared to the other design. The zeros around the unit circle are similar to each other. > Part 3: Equiripple Method (a) Using Matlab's firgr function to meet the original design specification (uniform error weight) Worst gain = 1.6646 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3500 Maximal passband error = 0.0538 Maximal stopband error = 0.0538 ** Filter #1 is the 3(a) design, and Filter #2 is the â€Å"boxcar† design. From the comparison above, we can see that the â€Å"boxcar† design has a more critical passband and stopband edge, but the 3(a) one has a smaller maximal passband error. Also, the â€Å"boxcar† one has a larger attenuation on stopband than the 3(a) one. The group delay responses of two designs are the same. (b) Using Matlab's firpm function to meet the original design specification Worst gain = 1.6639 Largest tap weight coefficient = 0.3476 Maximal passband error = 0.0638 Maximal stopband error = 0.0594 ** Filter #1 is the 3(a) design, and Filter #2 is the 3(b) design. From the comparison above, we can see that the 3(b) design has a more critical passband and stopband edge. And the stopband error is 0.0488 (which is consistent with 0.0538*(1-20%)=0.04304), the passband error is 0.0639 (which is consistent with 0.0538/(1-20%)=0.06725). The group delay responses of two designs are the same. (c) The zeros of the two equiripple designs ** Filter #1 is the 3(a) design, and Filter #2 is the 3(b) design. From figure above, we can see that 3(a) design has a zero far from unit circle, which is corresponding to the slower attenuation compared to the other design (almost no attenuation on the figure shown ). There is only one zero stays outside the unit circle for 3(b) design, which is the minimum phase design. > Part 4: Testing (a)Table the features for the 7 designed FIRs: Features Filter #1 Filter #2 Filter #3 Filter #4 Filter #5 Filter #6 Filter #7 Maximum gain 1.8372 1.4154 1.6900 1.5990 1.6771 1.6646 1.6639 Maximum passband linear 0.1678 0.0052 0.0706 0.0403 0.0516 0.0538 0.0638 Maximum passband error(dB) -15.5052 -45.7568 -23.0266 -27.8855 -25.7472 -25.3838 -23.9007 Maximum stopband linear 0.0795 0.2385 0.0852 0.1137 0.0782 0.0538 0.0594 Maximum stopband error(dB) -21.9886 -12.4495 -21.3913 -18.8858 -22.1339 -25.3838 -24.5274 Group delay 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 Largest tap weight coefficient 0.3694 0.3496 0.3500 0.3477 0.3464 0.3500 0.3476 (b) From the figure followed, we can figure out that the group delay is 22-11=11 samples regardless of the input frequency. (c) Compare the original, mirror, and complement FIR's impulse, magnitude frequency, and group delay response **Filter #1 is the original filter, Filter #2 is the mirror filter, and Filter #3 is the complement filter. (d) Maximal output is 1.8372, which equals to the worst gain prediction of this filter. > Part 5: Run-time Architecture (a) N = 8, M=1; N = 12, M=1; N = 16, M=1; Round off error N=8 N=12 N=16 From the comparison above, we can see clearly that as the value of N increases, the round-off error decreases. Bits of precision is N-1-1=N-2 (b) Choose two 12-bit address space which has memory cycle time of 12 ns, so the maximum run-time filter speed is 1/ (12ns/cycle*16 bits) =1/ (192 ns/filter cycle) =5.21*106 filter cycles/sec > Part 6: Experimentation (a) The maximal of the output time-series is 1.1341. It is reasonable, because it is smaller than the worst case gain which is 1.8372. So this agrees with the predicted filter response. (b) The â€Å"chirp† function makes a short, high-pitched sound, and it sounds four times, which is corresponding to the 4*fs. When all the .wav files are played, we can hear obviously that the frequency of output sound is much lower than the frequency of input sound, which means that the filter did filter high-frequency components out. From the figure above, we can see the high-frequency components are gone, which agrees with the predicted filter response, a low-pass filter. Summary: Through this project, the detailed processes of designing a filter by three different methods have been understood. And we know more about all the parameters which would affect properties of the filters, and how to use different methods to design them and make best trade-off between each other.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Describe 4 common sports injuries

The fibula is the splint bone on the outside of the lower leg, there are two types of breaks, the first being an open fracture which means the bone has ruptured the skin. A closed fracture does not rupture the skin and also a closed fracture is often treated by fitting a removable plastic cast. Healing time should be about 12 to 16 weeks. Unfortunately in Eduardo’s case he suffered an open fracture caused by force so his bones were splintered and ragged. Surgical fixing of the leg is then needed, which involves a large nail being inserted down the bone and then fixed together with plates and screws. This method improves recovery time and reduces muscle wastage due to immobilisation. Prompt medical attention limited the damage caused to Eduardo’s fibula. During an operation his fractured fibula was held together by pins. After the operation he required a leg cast. Before the leg cast was removed he was not allowed to put any weight on the injury so had to use crutches and have regular x-rays to check the pins and fusion of the bones. After the leg cast was removed he required intense physiotherapy to recover fully, due to the extent of his injury he was not able to play football for over a year. The wearing of shin pads reduces damage unless force is applied to the side of the leg as in this case. Concussion This is a traumatic brain injury which causes confusion, reflexes, speech and sleeping patterns. Movement of the brain from a heavy blow can cause concussion or unconsciousness such as blows to the head when boxing. The symptoms could be nausea, unequal pupils, headache, drowsiness and memory loss although there are sometimes no symptoms and no awareness of having concussion. Treatment would be in hospital if there is any suspected brain damage or bleeding to the brain such as in boxing. Mild concussions can be treated with rest and pain killers to treat headaches. Recovery can take between a few days to months. After American boxer Leander Johnson died from sustained punches to the head during a boxing match anti boxing organisations called for a ban on boxing. Leander died in hospital from injuries caused to his brain. Neurological scientists estimate that15-40 per cent of ex boxers have some form of chromic brain injury mostly caused from repeated concussions. Muscle strain (hamstring) A hamstring injury is a common strain in sport, it is also known as a ‘pulled hamstring’. The hamstring muscles are located in the upper leg, there are three muscles known as semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Depending on severity it would be a first, second or third degree strain and is caused by overstretching the muscle causing it to tear. Treatment would be rest, ice and elevation called the RICE protocol. Symptoms are a sudden sharp pain and you would also sustain pain when stretching or contracting the muscle. The hamstring can be damaged in most sporting activities such as running, cycling and football. To prevent a hamstring injury it is essential for an athlete to warm up correctly. Age, tiredness and previous injuries all increase the risk of injury. Many footballers experience hamstring injuries such as Shay Given who was injured recently. The recovery time for such an injury varies greatly depending on the severity; it could be anything from a few days to many months. Bruising Bruising can be sustained in almost any sport; a bruise is caused by vascular leakage of red blood cells into tissue. (Bleeding beneath the skin) this causes discolouration on the surface of the skin. The bruise changes colour as it heals such as brown and yellow, some creams (which contain vitamin K) can speed up healing. Bruises would not interfere with sporting activity unless they extend to a large area such as a whole leg. They are usually painful to touch and can be swollen but usually heal very quickly. Applying cold packs or ice to area aids with healing and pain. The World champion judo fighter, Mike Swain has sustained many bruises during his career, as do many judo fighters. The bruising has never interfered with him being able to partake in a judo match.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Essay on Federalism Advantages and DisadvantagesEssay Writing Service

Essay on Federalism Advantages and DisadvantagesEssay Writing Service Essay on Federalism: Advantages and Disadvantages Essay on Federalism: Advantages and DisadvantagesFederalism, as a form of government, has its advantages and disadvantages. Supporters of federalism state that this form of government can be viewed as the most suitable form to address the interests and needs of diverse groups of people. State’s laws guarantee the application of the best strategies to meet the needs of citizens, e.g. gun control laws, alcohol-related laws, abortion-related laws, etc. Ventral government fails to address these needs in a proper way. Besides, federalism is aimed at strengthening liberty through the division of powers between different levels of government. In fact, the division of power guarantees legal protection against the â€Å"concentration of power in a single, unitary government† (Dautrich Yalof, 2011, p. 78). The division of power helps to preserve liberty. Moreover, federalism helps to encourage social and economic experimentation and provides effective response to changes in diff erent sectors. Democracy encouraged by federalism allows states to develop and implement policies to improve the life of the nation. Adaptability of states to changing environment helps to manage bureaucracy and other issues.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The opponents of federalism provide many arguments that describe the disadvantage of federalism. Federalism can be characterized as an unfair system that involves the existence  Ã‚   of economic disparities between the states, and â€Å"questions about government accountability for many public programs that are inherent with competing sovereigns† (Dautrich Yalof, 2011, p. 79). The difference between the states in concluded in different levels of citizens, their financial opportunities, taxes and incomes. The lack of accountability is concluded in challenges caused by the functioning of multiple levels of government, which make it difficult to deal with these challenges effectively. Besides, federalism is dep endent on the courts’ decisions to define the rules of this form of government.   As a result, the judicial decision making forms the basis of the federalist system functioning.

Monday, October 21, 2019

buy custom Law Enforcement essay

buy custom Law Enforcement essay The world has in the last couple of months gone through a very tough phase with the recession in The United States of America sending a ripple effect to other countries around the world. It has been difficult for people to maintain their lifestyles on the same salaries they had before while it is even harder for the majority who are jobless. Getting a job is no longer easy and it is made worse by the rise in product prices and the inflation that is spread throughout the world. This has led to numerous protests from people the world over and it has not been different here in the United States. As a result the law enforcement agencies have been having a tough time trying to ensure that peace prevailed amidst of all the demonstrations. Occupy Wall Street are a series of demonstrations that were started by an activist group known as Adbusters in protest of the rise in living costs, corruption in both the government and the large private sector companies, and economic inequality witnessed in America. The protests are also aimed at the financial services sector and at lobbyist and they carry the slogan we are the 99% in reference to the gap between the wealthiest Americans and the rest of the populace (Grossman, 2009). These demonstrations have been held in over 70 cities around USA since the inception in mid-September, 2011. The effect has also been felt in other countries where similar protests have been held. As a community, everyone is affected by the protests taking place all over the plae. It is a tough choice to choose either to join the protests or to sit back and ridicule the protestors. This is because the protests are being held to demonstrate the pain of living today which is what we are all going through. It is therefore important that everyone should contribute to the protests in one way or another since they touch on our current situation. On the other hand, some people may find the protests to be disturbing and uncalled for since they do cause a great deal of disturbance. Those people who live anywhere near the areas where the protests are taking place know just how disturbing they can be. The level of noise is too high and the fact that there are hundreds of people walking around means that there is also a heightened level of insecurity since the protesters are not screened to enter the parks. As such the neighboring community is affected since even businesses closed on the days of protests mainly due to the retailers fears of riots and consequent looting. The government has been on recovery mission to try and reduce the inflation rate that has been a contributor to the protests. Other stakeholders like the financial sector companies have also gone silent or are trying to reduce their lending rates to enable the people who had taken loans especially for their homes to retain them with new repayment plans. The results to such protests need to be felt for the protesters to cease their protests and it is therefore clear that the protests are here to stay since the economy is still recovering albeit slowly. The government and other companies arre also witnessing further losses when the businesses remain closed during protests and more and more people join them leaving their work stations unattended. The police have had a herculean task of maintaining order throughout the protests. In New York, there has been a police officer tasked with advising the protesters on the ways they could keep away from being arrested and assisting in giving any other information relevant to keeping the protesters within the law limits. The city has had to grapple with a sharp rise in the cost of paying overtime charges since they have been deployed to watch the protesters round the clock. In Oakland, violence broke out in the midst of the over 10000 strong crowd and police were forced to make arrests. Similar cases that led to the arrest of numerous protesters were reported in Portland, Boston and Denver. The police have been overwhelmed by the large numbers of protesters who have been rowdy leading to the arrest of several protesters. It maybe the duty of law enforcers to maintain peace but in situations like these, the protesters become too rowdy leading to the police making arrests. In some instances, the police have been forced to use rubber bullets to shoot into the crowds to either disperse the crowds or to arrest some protesters. This obviously is not an easy task and is draining both physically and emotionally for the police. It has therefore not been easy for the law enforcement officers in their quest to offer their services to the populace whilst maintaining law and order. Buy custom Law Enforcement essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How Many People Are Killed or Injured in Hunting Accidents

How Many People Are Killed or Injured in Hunting Accidents According to the International Hunter Education Association, in an average year, fewer than  1,000 people in the US and Canada are accidentally shot by hunters, and of these, fewer than 75 are fatalities. In many cases, these fatalities are self-inflicted by hunters who trip, fall, or have other accidents that cause them to shoot themselves with their own weapons. Most of the other fatalities come in hunting parties, where one hunter shoots another accidentally. Firearm Fatalities in Hunting Fatality numbers have improved somewhat in recent years, thanks to extensive hunter education programs available in most states, but hunting does come with inherent dangers. Hunting fatalities due to firearms account for about 12% to 15% of all fatalities due to firearms nationally. Hunting proponents point out that the chances of a death due to a firearm accident of any kind are roughly the same as a death from falling out of a bed, chair, or another piece of furniture- about 1 in 4,888. If you compare pure numbers, roughly 20 times as many people die each year by accidental drowning than do by accidents while hunting. These statistics are misleading, however, since far more people engage in recreational swimming than engage in  sports hunting with firearms.   Overall accidental death statistics from the National Safety Council can provide some context. Of all accidental deaths:   1 out of every 114 is a motor vehicle crash1 out of every 370 is an intentional assault by a firearm1 out of 1,188 is due to accidental drowning1 out of every  Ã‚  6,905 is an accidental firearms discharge1 out of every  161,856 is due to a lightning strike It must be noted, however, that a great many accidental deaths by firearms do not involve hunters. When shooting-related fatalities occur in hunting,  most of the victims are hunters, although  non-hunters are also sometimes killed or injured. It can be said that this is a sport that does pose some danger to an entire community, not just to the willing participants.   Hunting Accident Statistics A report published by American orthopedic surgeons Randall Loder and Neil Farren in 2014 showed that between 1993 and 2008, 35,970 firearm-related injuries involved in hunting were reported to US hospitals or about 2,400 per year over the fifteen-year period of the study. Thats out of a total of 1,841,269 total accidents involving firearms (about per year 123,000).   Hunters injured by firearms in this study were nearly all Caucasian (91.8%), young adult to middle-aged (ages 24–44) and male (91.8%), who came to small hospitals (65.9%) to be treated. They were most often shot (56%) but other injuries- fractures and lacerations from falling out of trees, etc.- made up the rest. The injuries were most common in the head and neck (46.9%), self-inflicted (85%), unintentional (99.4%), at a school or recreation center (37.1%), and with an overall mortality rate of 0.6% (about 144 per year). The mortality rate is lower than reported elsewhere because the study included all injuries reported with hunting accidents. Alcohol was an issue in only 1.5% of the cases. The most common type of injury was a laceration (37%), not a puncture wound (15.4%).   It will come as no surprise that most of the injuries occurred during the hunting months of October, November, and December. The study found that the estimated incidence of a firearm injury associated with hunting activities is 9 in 1 million hunting days.   Hunting Related Accidents in Context In reality, most of the greatest dangers to hunters  are  not related to firearms but occur for other reasons, such as car accidents traveling to and from hunting sites or heart attacks while hiking woods and hills. Particularly dangerous  are fall from tree stands. Recent estimates say that there are almost 6,000 hunting accidents to hunters each year involving falls from tree stands- six times as many as are wounded by firearms. A recent survey in the state of Indiana found that 55% of all hunting-related accidents in that state were related to tree stands.   The vast majority of fatal accidental shootings while hunting involve the use of shotguns or rifles while hunting deer. This is also perhaps no surprise, since deer hunting is one of the most popular forms of hunting where high-powered firearms are used.   The Committee to Abolish Sport Hunting maintains the Hunting Accidents Center, which collects news stories about hunting accidents throughout the world. Although the list is long, its not comprehensive, and not every hunting accident is reported in the news. Sources Barber, C, et al. Underestimates of Unintentional Firearm Fatalities: Comparing Supplementary Homicide Report Data with the National Vital Statistics System. Injury Prevention 8.3 (2002): 252–56. Print.Carter, Gary L. Accidental Firearms Fatalities and Injuries among Recreational Hunters. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18.4 (1989): 406–09. Print.Greninger, Howard. Falls from tree stands top hunting accidents. Terre Haute Tribune Star, November 11, 2014.Incident Reports. Responsible Hunting, International Hunter Education Association.  Loder, Randall T., and Neil Farren. Injuries from Firearms in Hunting Activities. Injury 45.8 (2014): 1207–14. Print.Reports of hunting accidents for the current year. Hunting Accidents Center, Committee to Abolish Sports Hunting.  What Are the Odds of Dying From... At Work: Tools and Resources. National Safety Council.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Plato's _Meno_ discussion Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Plato's _Meno_ discussion - Dissertation Example The change in perspective of the Athenians can be related to the accusations made against Socrates. By telling Meno to convince Anytus, the Athenians’ view of Socrates can change. His intention was in line with the Apology that is to present his virtues. He brought up the issue on the meaning of the concept of virtue to present himself as a person who has the knowledge about virtue. Another is the manner by which virtue can be achieved and taught. Socrates concluded in the end of Meno that virtue is a gift from God to the virtuous, which means that the concept is there for everyone to acquire but only the virtuous people have the capability to use it. What then are the specific benefits of the dialogue regarding virtue? The discussion regarding virtue can be considered beneficial to Socrates because through the dialogue, he was able to present himself as a person who knows the meaning of the concept of virtue. In addition to his apology, he was able to present his real charact er, which can be considered as the reason why he challenged Meno on convincing Anytus for the benefit of the Athenians. The said discussion on the other hand is significant to the readers as a trigger towards a deeper view on the general concept of virtue, which is important since the meaning of the word itself is often overlooked.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Islamic Finance Law Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Islamic Finance Law - Dissertation Example The paper would therefore be analysing the role of Islamic finance in the fast transforming environment of global economy with the view that it has brought in more radical but ethical paradigms within financial system of contemporary times. Historical background The Ottoman Empire in the pre WWI era has perhaps been the most prominent exponent of using tenets of Islamic finance in their trade and business transactions. The close trade relationship with their European counterparts, Islamic finance was closely aligned with that of European financial system. The system worked on the basis of sharing of profit and loss (Chachi, 2005). But post WWI and WWII brought into focus the divergent ideologies of two financial system into sharp focus. While the western economy and financial system was based on interest bearing instruments, Islamic finance was rigidly guided by the religious tenets of Islam which forbids transactions based on interests or gains made through unethical means (Ahmad, 1 972)). In the contemporary times, Islamic finance has seen unprecedented growth primarily because of its fundamental principles based on Shariah guidelines (Anwar, 2008; Sundararajan & Errico, 2002). Principles of Islamic law and financial transactions under it Islamic finance is based on Islamic law that conforms to the Shariah guidelines of ethical practices in personal and business arena. Thus, Shariah can broadly be referred as Islamic law that defines the duties of man and the way they should be carried out (Vogel & Hayes, 1998; Hasanuzzaman, 1997). Shariah is part of Quran, the religious scripture of Muslims and is written in Arabic language. The interpretation of Shariah scholars therefore, may differ but the fundamental principle of ethics remains same. But Hadith, qiyas, idjma and fatwas are also key sources which inspire the ethical and moral considerations within the business transactions in Islamic finance (El-Gamal, 2006; Shahrukh, 1997; Pryor, 1985). Shariah principles are based on equity and prohibit financial transactions and activities that incorporate gharar (uncertainty), maiser (gambling) and riba (interest income) (Thomas, 2005; Nienhaus, 1986; Hasanuzzaman, 1994). The shariah compliance is vital element of Islamic finance products. Interestingly in the current times of highly sensitive global market, Islamic finance offers huge incentives in terms of ethically delivered financial instruments in myriad areas of finance (Venardos, 2005; Cooper, 1997; Ariff, 1988). It has made forays into banking, market risks and credit, insurance, liquidity management etc. and is fast emerging as credible alternative investment forum. Main Sharia compliant transaction structure and how they are used in practice All Islamic financial institutions are distinct in their constitution of board that comprises of financial experts and shariah scholars who evaluate the validity of financial instruments as per shariah principles. It uses various financial structure s that conform to shariah but at the same time, adequately meet the needs of people in the contemporary times (Hasanuzzaman, 1971; Saeed, 1995). Some of those financial methodologies can be defined as under: Zakah: It is vital instrument that promotes social justice by ensuring that people who own more than nisab (basic need) must make donation of 2.5% of their yearly assets. The social funds are used to meet the needs of the poor. Murabaha:

Leadership in nursing practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Leadership in nursing practice - Essay Example Due to the differences in the Saudi people and the nursing/hospital staff, the Saudi government has come up with requirements for expatriate nurses. The important requirements for nurses working in Saudi Arabia include: Due to these requirements and other demands placed on the nursing staff of Saudi Arabia, there are various systems and structures in the Saudi care setting. These requirements are very different from what exists in other countries, particularly Western nations. As such, a nurse in Saudi Arabia has an obligation to adjust to meet the requirements of the Saudi society. This paper examines the relationship between management/leadership theories and the actual running of a tertiary neonatal unit in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It involves an evidence based practice approach to examine how a major health facilities can be ran in relation to dominant concepts and theories of management and leadership in the nursing profession. The research explores the impact of the Saudi governments policy, inter-professional practice and leadership requirements on the role of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The paper concludes with recommendations for future practice in the region. According to Wilson et al (2009), a tertiary level facility is usually one that provides education of medical students and serves about 10 million people in a given geographical area. Such tertiary level facilities co-ordinate with primary level facilities and take up serious cases. In a neo-natal facility of such a hospital, intensive care services are available for mothers and their babies. Nursing in such a facility comes with different requirements. There is a larger scope of work. As such, there is the chance for more severe cases to be reported to such facilities. Also, the scope of human relations in such an institution is generally meant to be more than it exists in other smaller hospitals. Most tertiary level

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Housing market in China Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Housing market in China - Case Study Example The method that was adapted in this study to accomplish the aim involved the discussion of the characteristics of globalization and how it leads to economic growth. A background on the property market and its dynamics is also provided. The period under study were divided into two: 1999-2000 and 2001 up to now. The topics were divided into the commercial and residential sector. This was done to provide for points of comparison. An extensive search of primary and secondary literature was conducted on all available resources such as peer-reviewed journals, magazines, newspaper, other scholarly articles and finally, the Internet. Business information providers from the public sector such as China's Statistics Center and private venture such as the GoldmanSachs provided many historical and statistical data and were subsequently used. Results of the study indicates that there were many factors that led to the boom in the property market industry which includes government reforms, flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), worldwide events sponsored by China and other market reforms. With regards to the commercial sector, the supply was mainly fuelled by the demand generated by people belonging to multinational companies. In the residential sector, the supply was fuelled by people migrating from rural areas to work in the urban areas which was developed with the influx of investments of both Chinese and foreign businessmen. All of these developments were argued to be largely a result of China globalizing itself. In the end, it was concluded that globalization did indeed fuelled the rise in the property market sector. Chapter 1. Introduction China went under Communist control with the victory of Mao Zedong over the Nationalist Chiang Kai Shek. In spite of the spirit that animated the country, it was only due to the efforts of President Deng Xiaoping to reform and the open-up China that the country has undergone a profound transformation never seen in the country before. His efforts would prove to be a step toward China embracing the globalization concept. Chinese President Hu Jintao (2005) relates that China has benefited from globalization because in a short span of 26 years from 1978 to 2004, China's GDP increased from $147.3 billion to $1.6494 trillion registering an average annual growth rate of 9.4% while foreign trade rose from $20.6 billion to $1.1548 trillion with an average annual growth rate of over 16%. China's foreign exchange reserve increased from $167 million to $609.9 billion while the number of rural poor has decreased significantly from 250 million to 26 million. Jintao (2005) further notes that by the end of 2004, China had attracted a total of $562.1 billion in FDI, approved the establishment in China of more than 500,000 foreign-funded enterprises and created a huge import market of some $560 billion annually. At present, most countries and regions have had enterprises with investment in China, and over 400 firms out of the Fortune 500 have invested in China. The number of R&D centers set up by foreign investors i n China has exceeded 700. The overall national strength of China has remarkably increased while the quality of life of its

African American Stereotypes in Trading Places Assignment

African American Stereotypes in Trading Places - Assignment Example There have been several theories proposed regarding how race is represented in the media. To understand the concept fully, it is necessary to understand how media influences society, with examples from the movie Trading Places. Even in the world of strict entertainment, the media continues its long-standing tradition of reinforcing middle-class society’s concepts of the world. â€Å"Above all, the media are defensive about the sacred institutions of society – whereas black people most encounter problems in this sensitive power-areas: employment, public discrimination, housing, parliamentary legislation, local government, law and order, the police† (Hall, 1974). In order to appeal to the middle class, many of the films that come out of Hollywood tend to reflect the hopes and dreams of this class of society. This typically involves the concept that the lifestyle of the very wealthy is the only lifestyle worth having. It also reinforces the thought that it is only through hard work and struggles that one can appreciate this good life. The black man, and occasionally a woman, is allowed to enter this world only at the invitation and assistance of a white man while the typical portrayal con tinues to hold him down at the lower rungs of society. This type of portrayal reinforces the concept that black men are not capable of success and white men are not very capable of failure. As Hall (1974) makes obvious, even comedies that are merely supposed to entertain, such as Trading Places, can contain several unremarkable messages that serve to maintain and promote the existing power relations within society, representing the black man as a necessary failure. Within the movie Trading Places, these ideas can easily be traced.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Housing market in China Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Housing market in China - Case Study Example The method that was adapted in this study to accomplish the aim involved the discussion of the characteristics of globalization and how it leads to economic growth. A background on the property market and its dynamics is also provided. The period under study were divided into two: 1999-2000 and 2001 up to now. The topics were divided into the commercial and residential sector. This was done to provide for points of comparison. An extensive search of primary and secondary literature was conducted on all available resources such as peer-reviewed journals, magazines, newspaper, other scholarly articles and finally, the Internet. Business information providers from the public sector such as China's Statistics Center and private venture such as the GoldmanSachs provided many historical and statistical data and were subsequently used. Results of the study indicates that there were many factors that led to the boom in the property market industry which includes government reforms, flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), worldwide events sponsored by China and other market reforms. With regards to the commercial sector, the supply was mainly fuelled by the demand generated by people belonging to multinational companies. In the residential sector, the supply was fuelled by people migrating from rural areas to work in the urban areas which was developed with the influx of investments of both Chinese and foreign businessmen. All of these developments were argued to be largely a result of China globalizing itself. In the end, it was concluded that globalization did indeed fuelled the rise in the property market sector. Chapter 1. Introduction China went under Communist control with the victory of Mao Zedong over the Nationalist Chiang Kai Shek. In spite of the spirit that animated the country, it was only due to the efforts of President Deng Xiaoping to reform and the open-up China that the country has undergone a profound transformation never seen in the country before. His efforts would prove to be a step toward China embracing the globalization concept. Chinese President Hu Jintao (2005) relates that China has benefited from globalization because in a short span of 26 years from 1978 to 2004, China's GDP increased from $147.3 billion to $1.6494 trillion registering an average annual growth rate of 9.4% while foreign trade rose from $20.6 billion to $1.1548 trillion with an average annual growth rate of over 16%. China's foreign exchange reserve increased from $167 million to $609.9 billion while the number of rural poor has decreased significantly from 250 million to 26 million. Jintao (2005) further notes that by the end of 2004, China had attracted a total of $562.1 billion in FDI, approved the establishment in China of more than 500,000 foreign-funded enterprises and created a huge import market of some $560 billion annually. At present, most countries and regions have had enterprises with investment in China, and over 400 firms out of the Fortune 500 have invested in China. The number of R&D centers set up by foreign investors i n China has exceeded 700. The overall national strength of China has remarkably increased while the quality of life of its

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Ransomware Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ransomware - Research Paper Example Ransomware is a threat due to inability to recover information from the infected computer. Ransomware is a hijacking threat in the computer system using encryption technology to limit or prevent the user’s access to their system. The Three types of ransomware include encrypting malware, lock-screen viruses and scareware. The ransomware make be in the form of police blocking computer access or FBI virus while others use pornographic images to embarrass the victim. The victims of this malware are usually internet users though hijacking of their user files. It often requires the user to pay ransom to the malware creator before removing the restriction. The attacker may seize the files or computer until the user pays the ransom to online currency accounts such as Webmoney or eGold. The attacks using ransomware are becoming more sophisticated and refined in algorithm posing great challenges to data protection. We will consider the history of ransomware, how ransomware functions in this article. Besides, the paper discusses the reason behind its fast growth, how to prevent it or fix the computer after infection. The increase in the use of ransomware since the formation of the first one raises the question of why they are becoming more prominent. The ransomware is likely to evolve further with the current ones having the ability to encrypt and lock the files. The latest actions of the ransomware ensure the damage they cause continues even after removal without paying the ransom money. As the technology evolves, the malware also evolves in many ways to thrive (Elisan & Hypponen, 2013). . Ransomware has changed over time since the first case in the infection methods, directives and persistence. The early cases of ransomware were benign and easy to remove. However, the new strains are more persistent and pose great threats. The first ransomware is PC Cyborg in 1989 that claimed expiry of license to a

Empirical evidence to support the theoretical framework Essay Example for Free

Empirical evidence to support the theoretical framework Essay Wolfgang and Ferracuti present a general a general version of this subculture of violence thesis, which was drawn on Sutherland’s differential association theory, as well as other approaches, in order to explain why certain groups have higher rates of violence (Cote, 2002 p. 88). The subculture of Violence theory relied to some extent on Wolfgang’s earlier study of homicide in Philadelphia. Wolfgang had found that a significant number of homicides that occurred among lower-class people seemed to result from very trivial events that took on great importance because of mutually held expectations about how people would behave (Waters, 2006 p. 62). The authors of the theory began their work by presenting a variety of propositions and constitute the thesis, ranging from psychoanalytic theories of aggression, medical and biological studies, the frustration-aggression hypothesis, containment theory, child-rearing practices, and social learning and conditioning propositions. Wolfgang and Ferracuti has pointed out that the subculture of violence approve of violence unconditionally and that violence is not necessarily supported by all members of sub-society (Cote, 2002 p.88). One case presentation is provided in which the theoretical framework of subculture of violence is depicted. States that have a higher population of black people but low in white homicide rates, such as Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, contain a large proportion of blacks who come from the South (Hazlehurst and Hazlehurst, 1998 p. 36; Smith and Berlin, 1998 p. 268). On the other hand, the states in which the migrant blacks were reared also show a high white homicide rates. Critically analyzing these facts, one can infer that in the Southern states, there is a subculture of violence more intensive than in other parts of our country, which is shared by both black and white races and which is carries North by both races when they migrate to these new areas (Smith and Berlin, 1998 p. 268). As an example, the analysis of racial stands and status present in the United States, trivial insults are expected to be met with violence, and failure to respond in this way is met with social censure from the peer group adapted this theory to explain violence among American Blacks (Cote, 2002 p. 88; Hazlehurst and Hazlehurst, 1998 p. 36). Maintenance of a manly image is important in the subculture, and individuals who are unable to resolve conflicts verbally are more likely to resort to violence in order to assert their masculinity. Behavior is partly a response to social conditions, and partly the result of an individual’s acceptance of the ideas and values which he has absorbed from the subculture of violence (Hazlehurst and Hazlehurst, 1998 p. 36). Critiques on Subculture of Violence Theory. Fine and Kelinman (1979) have offered a general critique of the notion of subculture as it is used by social scientists. Many of their criticisms are relevant fir understanding the limitations of subculture of violence theory. They note that problems in previous subculture research include (1) a confusion of the ideas of subculture and sub-society, (2) the lack of a meaningful referent for subculture, (3) the homogeneity and stasis associated with the concept, and (4) the emphasis on defining subcultures in terms of values and central themes. They suggest that the subculture construct, to be of maximal usefulness, needs to be linked to processes of interaction among members of groups (Greene and Gabbidon, 2000 p. 133). In addition, it would be difficult to support an argument that a subculture exists in relation to a single cultural interest, and the thesis of a subculture of violence does not suggest a monolithic character (Bean, 2003 p. 229). Tedeschi and Felson (1994), for instance, were unable to identify a community or subculture that placed a positive value on violence. Furthermore, the subculture of violence hypothesis has been criticized on the grounds that it makes a circular argument (Walters, 2002 p. 81-82). Darnell Hawkins (1983) offered a number of criticisms of the subculture of violence theory that could apply equally to other â€Å"cultural† theories (Mann, 1993 p. 115-116): 1. There is an overemphasis on individual value orientations which, when aggregated, are said to generate a subculture. 2. The theory is not empirically grounded and is challenged by some research findings. 3. A great deal of the theory underemphasizes a number of structural, situational, and institutional factors that affect interpersonal violence; for example, for African Americans such factors extend from historical patterns evolving from slavery to the ramifications of an individual homicide, to the manner in which the criminal justice system operates. 4. The theory downplays the effects of the law on criminal homicide patterns. 5. In addition to the implanting of values, there are other possible ways that the social, economic, and political disadvantages faced by African Americans may lead to high homicide rates. Criticisms of the theoretical framework are subjected to various differentiations of human totality. The primary domain associated in the theoretical framework itself is the concept that subculture is the prime effectors of criminal and deviant behavior occurrence, which is not always and not entirely factual. As the statement of criminal governance and behavioral psychology implies, there are still various organizations and domains present in the both intra and inter-personal human attributes, such as physical nature, cognitive capacity and status, moral perspectives, environmental strains and stresses present, and the social conflicts that cover broad scope of conceptualities. Conclusions. In the summary of the theoretical framework presented, Subculture of Violence Theory by Marvin Wolfgang and Italian criminologist Franco Ferracuti (1976), has produced significant contributions in explaining how social community of subculture and violence affects the behavioral deviancy. The major point of the theoretical framework emphasizes more on violent behaviors resulted by a sub-cultural environment that encourages and legalize violent behavioral patterns. The theory assumed that violence only occurs if violence itself is intrinsically present in the community, and eventually, encourage its occurrence. If the subculture engages in behavioral conflicts of violence, chances are, the individuals involved in such acts or those that are indirectly related to the occurrence of that act shall primarily be influence to redo the violent behavior due to the concept of violence-legalizations. The theoretical framework has been based in the reflection of lower-class norms and a learned response to the pressures encountered in lower-class living, empirical support for the existence of impoverished inner-city areas, and the homicide occurrences in African Americans and whites. The social policy implicated involves mainly the racial equity between the races exampled. Reference Bean, P. (2003). Crime. Routledge. Cote, S. (2002). Criminological Theories: Bridging the Past to the Future. Sage Publications Inc. Flowers, R. B. (2002). Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders. Haworth Press. Greene, H. , Gabbidon, S. L. (2000). African American Criminological Thought. SUNY Press. Hazzlehurst, K. M. , Hazzlehurst, C. (1998). Gangs and Youth Subcultures: International Explorations. Transaction Publishers. Heitmeyer, G. F. , Hagan, J. (2003). International Handbook of Violence Research. Springer. Lee etal, M. (2003). Solution-Focused Treatment of Domestic Violence Offenders. Oxford University Press. Mann, C. (1993). Unequal Justice: A Question of Color. Indiana University Press. Smith, A. B. , Berlin, L. (1998). Treating the Criminal Offender. Springer. Vito etal, G. F. (2007). Criminology: Theory, Research, And Policy. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Volavka, J. (2002). Neurobiology of Violence. American Psychiatric Pub. Walters, G. D. (2002). Criminal Belief Systems: An Integrated-Interactive Theory of Lifestyles. Praeger/Greenwood. Waters, N. (2006). Ten List for School Safety: Teach These Laws to Safeguard Generations. Tate Publishing. Wolfgang, M. (2001). The Subculture Of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology. Routledge.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Food Culture in Malaysia and Japan

Food Culture in Malaysia and Japan The growing, rearing and processing of foodstuffs seems to have held a special fascination since the nineteenth century. Food and beverage industry has really growth and moving positively if compare to the preceding years, which is from the number of restaurant that opens day by day. There is a vast variety of restaurants with the different types of cuisine in Malaysia that representing different country and culture by offers an exciting array of food outlets, from fast food to fine dining and everything in between. Local food alone offers Malay, Cantonese, Szechuan, Indian and Nyonya cuisine while international food covers the gamut from Japanese to Middle-Eastern, Italian and American. Today, more people are excited to experiment and explore each restaurant that just opened. Moreover, due to the lifestyle and trends, more people are eating out rather than cook at home. For instance: Recently, more and more Japanese restaurants have been opened around Malaysia. Every restaurant trie s to bring up a new concept and originality to their brand. As the time goes by, people are more selective nowadays. They would like to choose a good quality food, with a good portion, with a good branding, and willing to pay with a reasonable price. There are some students are willing to pay high price for one meal because they want to try a new restaurant or a new cuisine with a good quality of the food. Thus, all restaurants have to try their best to meet the customers expectations. Besides that, they also have to recognize every aspect of their business has an impact on customer service because involve face to face customer contact and the supply in food has growing day by day. Each restaurant has to boost them self to improving customer service that involves making a commitment to learning what our customers needs and wants are, and developing action plans that implement customer friendly processes. The writer finds this issue interesting because nowadays people often ask the simple question like Where are we going to eat? I love Japanese foods especially sushi. Where can I get a delicious sushi with ideal price, good service and good place to hang out? When people decide to choose a Japanese restaurant, there are some factors that influence their decision making, such as customers emotion, satisfaction and brand loyalty. It is very important to know customers behavior in order to build a long term relationship. Therefore, the writer has chosen the title An assessment of Sushi Zanmai Malaysia popularity among university college students. There are three different concepts of Japanese restaurant that owe by SuperSushi Sdn Bhd Company which are: 1st Concept: Sushi Zanmai that began since in April, 1997, the genuine conveyer-sushi restaurant. There are several outlets of Sushi Zanmai which are in Sunway Pyramid, The Gardens, One Utama and Low-Yat. 2nd Concept: Sushi Zen that began since in September, 2007, a casual kiosk-style Japanese restaurant. 3rd Concept: Pasta Zanmai that began since in December, 2007, a Japanese Casual Pasta Restaurant. Within this short period, this company has developed the restaurant very fast, from one concept into another concept. The purpose of this research is: To identify factors that influence people selecting Sushi Zanmai as a sushi restaurant To identify current trends of Japanese food To recommend measures that could help to improve current condition PART 1: LITERATURE AND REVIEW 1.1 Food Culture in Malaysia Malaysia has a combined population of over 18 million people. Because of its central location, between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Malaysia has traditionally been a meeting point for traders and travelers from both the East and West, it also has produced a most diverse culinary melting pot. As a result, Malaysia has a multicultural and multiracial population consisting of three main group which are Malays, Chinese, Indians and numerous indigenous peoples. With such a varying ethnic composition, it is no surprise that a great diversity of religions is prevalent throughout Malaysia. In Malaysia, eating out is really a gastronomic adventure. A blend ofcultural and ethnic histories which make up Malaysias diverse population is reflected in the broad range of influences and flavours found in Malaysian cuisine. And each state in Malaysia has something to offer in terms of culinary delights. For instance: Penang, the famous in hawker stall haven, where all the most delicious food requires that only costs as little as RM 3.50 per dish, such as Penang Char Kway Teow, Fried Oyster, Laksa, etc. Mallaca is also home to Baba Nyonya food, which served in quaint cafes in historical shop houses. Or in Kuala Lumpur, the most diverse offering of foods from all over the world, such as Chinese cuisine, Indian cuisine, Japanese cuisine, Thailand cuisine, Vietnamese cuisine, European cuisine, Arabian cuisine, etc. With mixed origins, there are certain ingredients common to many dishes in Malaysia. Multiple varieties of rice and noodles, which are from local or imported from Thailand, Japan or India, are often used as a base. The Malays include a lot of seafood in their diet, like fish, squids, prawns and crabs that used to show up in Malay dishes. And most of Malaysian dishes use fish sauce or fish paste because fish live is around the shores of Malaysias islands. Fresh herbs and roots are commonly used to cook Malays food.ÂÂ   Indian and Thai curry spices with regional varieties are often used to create rich and spicy curry dishes. A dried spice is also form an important component of Malays cooking. Moreover, in a city of Malaysia which is Malacca was one of the great trading centers of the spice in the fifteen century. And Coconut is another favorite ingredient which is also common found in countless dishes. For instance: Santan(the coconut milk), to make creamy curries. It is to add sa vory sweetness of the dishes and to cool the fire of hotter spices. Today, rice is the staple for almost half the worlds population, particularly in parts of China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Southeast Asia. According to historians, they believe that is was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of Eastern Himalayas (Northeastern India), and stretching through Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Southern China. From here, it spread in all directions and human cultivation created numerous varieties of rice. According to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in Philippines, there are 120.000 varieties of rice worldwide. Over the centuries, there are three main types of rice developed in Asia, depends on the content of the grain which is: Amylase means an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar Rice has divided into three (3) which are long grain, medium grain and short grained varieties. In this case, different populations, consumer different varieties of rice. Foods through the day in Malaysia are three meals a day and rice is almost always included, even at breakfast. For instance, Nasi Lemak. A typical meal consists of rice served with soup, curries, and a few vegetable stir-fries and also eaten fruit for dessert. A typical of Malay lunch and dinner was all dishes are placed in the center of the table to be shared by all the diners and usually the Malay food is often eaten with the hands. There are similar eating pattern within Japanese and Malaysia, which the main staple is rice and it is eaten with almost every meal. The meal features is quite same, such as the tastes of sweet, sour, spicy, bitter and salty. Like Chinese style wheat noodles served in meat stock known as Ramen have become extremely popular over the last century and Malaysian like to consume noodles. Follow by seafood, as Japan is surrounded by sea as same as Malaysias islands. Therefore, When Japanese cuisine comes to Malaysia, the food itself easily accepted by Malaysian. 1.2 Background of Japanese Food Culture The rice-centered food culture of Japan evolution follows the introduction of wet rice cultivation from Asia more than 2000 years ago. The cultivation and consumption of rice has always played a central role in Japanese food culture. The tradition of Japanese is usually rice served with seasonal vegetables; fish and other marine products reached a highly sophisticated form in the Edo period (1600-1868) and remains the vibrant core of native Japanese cuisine. In the century and a half since Japan reopened to the West, Japan has developed an incredibly rich and varied food culture which includes not only native Japanese cuisine but also many foreign dishes. Some adapted to Japanese tastes and some imported more or less unchanged. In the 6th century, introduction of Buddhism to Japan became the official religion of the country and the eating of meat and fish were prohibited. The first recorded decision prohibiting the eating of cattle, horses, dogs, monkeys and chicken was issued by Emperor Temmu in A.D.675. Laws and emperor eliminate the eating of almost all flesh of animals and fowl because based on Buddhism are prohibiting to killing. In the 15th century, many of the foods and food ingredients eaten by Japanese nowadays, for instance: miso, tofu or soy sauce. In the 16th century, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese frying technique with Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many types of vegetables with deep fried method. In the early 19th century, the development in Edo, the introduction of sushi has started. Todays, most of people are familiar with that dishes. It made from vinegar rice top or combined with raw fish and shellfish. And during that time, sushi was sold from stalls as a snack food, and that stalls were become the starter of todays sushi restaurants. In the mid 19th century, many of new cooking and eating customs were introduced where the most important being eating the meat. Consider of Japanese dish, Sukiyaki that consist of beef, vegetables, tofu and other ingredients cook at the table in a soup stock of soy sauce, sweet sake and sugar was first served in Western style restaurants. Another dish that popular during this period is Tonkatsu, means a deep fried bread pork cutlets. In the early 20th century, using Indian curry powder, Japanese curry rice (kareraisu) became very popular dish which consisted vegetables, meat or seafood with a thick curry sauce and served with rice. In generally at sushi restaurants, costumers will sit at the counter and call out their order item to a sushi chef. Or sit at Conyever belt where the customers can grab small plates in front of you, or call a special order if you do not see what you want on the belt. Or customers can sit on tatami mats. And as like Chinese, Japanese also ate with chopsticks to transfer the food. The rice bowl is not held as closely to the mouth. Soups are consumed directly from the bowl and the only dish eaten with a spoon is an unsweetened egg custard which known as chawanmushi. There are several ways to describes the differ of Japan cuisine from other cuisine, First, portion of the dish are small because it is to capture the diners attention with the freshness, natural flavor, the beauty of each dish, the atmosphere and the whole meal. Second, the food for a meal is served at once, so diners receive their own portions on individual plates and bowls instead of serving family style from large bowls in the middle of table. Third, Japanese use less oil which to emphasize the light and natural flavor of the food. And now, development of Japanese restaurant that opened more and more in Malaysia. It can be cause of the trends between among the Malaysia. There is similarity between Malaysia cuisine and Japanese cuisine that makes Malaysia is easier to accept. Other reason is Malaysian are quite open minded with those culture. 1.3 Food affecting consumers towards selection of food There are numerous factors that affect consumers towards selection of food, whether it is made by individuals or other parties. Food choices are influenced by many interacting factors which are income, culture, the concern about health, values, religion or even genetic. Many operational models have been developed to describe these influences that including The Lifestyle Model of dietary habits (Pelto, 1981), which attempts to explain how these factors interact to result in specific food behaviors. Societal Factors: Food Production and Distribution System is responsible for the availability of foods which differs from region to region and country to country. Food availability influences and in turn is influenced by the socio-economic and political systems. These serve to control the production and distribution of food in culture. Government policy may also be involved with the purchasing power of consumers through programs such as the oversight of food quality through safety standards, nutrition labeling requirements and other production programs (JoslingRitson, 1986) Lifestyle Factors: Income (limits what foods can be purchased) ÂÂ ® Occupation (influences food habits in several ways, for instance: the location of the job also influence meal patterns) ÂÂ ® Education (the status and self-realization phase of food use are usually, through not always dependent on higher levels of education) ÂÂ ® Nutrition Knowledge (may or may not translate into knowledge based behavior, and greater influence over what someone eats than what the person knows about nutrition) ÂÂ ® Ethnic identity (a distant heritage that has been modified or lost over the generations through acculturation) ÂÂ ® Rural-Urban (place of residence may affect which foods people eat) ÂÂ ® Religious Beliefs (depends on what religion, may have a great impact on food habits or may have no influence at all) ÂÂ ® Health (specific foods are often credited with health promoting qualities, such as ginseng in Asia) ÂÂ ® Physiological (age,gender,body image, and state of health)A ll of influence lifestyle factors are affects food habits. 1.4 Factors affecting popularity of Japanese food towards university college student The marketing mix is the set of marketing tools which often summarized as the four Ps that the firm uses to achieve its objectives in target markets (McCarthy, 2001). And most marketing professionals would say that the right marketing mix is the one that maximizes customers satisfaction and results in the highest sales or market share. Product It is defined as anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a need or a want. Step one; this product emerges will come from an analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunity and threats. There are two classifications of product: Tangible product Goods Intangible product Services For a restaurant, the goods are food and beverage outlets offered and the service is the customer service. Consequently, it is logically to include services within the definition of the product. (David Jobber) Step two; is a detailed analysis of the target market to assess the nature of the opportunity, what is its size and potential? How strong is the competition and how is it likely to evolve in the future? Step three; is research into the needs of prospective customers, what is it that customers actually want? According to Hamel and Prahalad, 1991, today, this goes beyond merely asking customers, what are the customer looking for, but creatively seeking to discover needs that customers cannot articulate because the customers are unaware of the possibilities offered by new technologies and the changing environment. People will always seek a restaurant that offering excellent food, especially when the restaurant have a good service, value and ambiance. People satisfy their needs and wants with products. Thus, the product is the main thing for a company because without products there is nothing to market or sell. And when a customer decides to buy a product, the customer will look for certain characteristics. The customer will want to know how many different products that offered by restaurant, which one provides a more interesting savings and what is included in the product. Product must have the power to leave a good impression and interest so the customer will not hesitate to visit the restaurant for the second time. Price It is defined as what the product or service costs to the customer or the amount that customers are willing to pay for a product and service. In order hand, price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue. And setting a price for a product is very important. Price has a very strong impact on sales volume and market share; empirical studies (reviewed in Tellis, 1988; and Sethuraman and Tellis, 1991) have shown that, for most products, price elasticity is substantially higher than advertising elasticity. The company will need to set a price that the customer can afford and willing to pay and at the same it will help the company to achieve a good level of profits. When a customer asks about the price of a product, the customer also interested in knowing is there any discounts or special promotions. Therefore, no matter how good the product, how creative the promotion or how efficient the place or distribution, unless price covers costs the company will make a loss. (David Jobber, 2004) For instance, if the price is expensive, regular students will not be able to afford it and will think to have their meals in other restaurant. Nowadays, customers are concern about the price of their food and tend to compare the price to another restaurant. The customer will evaluate whether the value of the product is worth the amount that the customer are paying, because customers are always strongly influenced by price. Price often fulfills two functions simultaneously: it reflects the sacrifice that the buyer must make in order to acquire the product or service involved and it also acts as a signal of the quality of the product (Monroe, 1990) Another consideration is where pricing have the relationship between price and perceived quality, because many people use price as an indicator of quality. According to David Jobber, the more value a product gives compared to that of the competition, the higher the price that can be charged. Price should accurately key to the value to the customer. The sacrifices that made by the customer is in order to experience the benefits of a product, thus from the restaurant itself have to give the best for the customer. Place It is defined as place or distribution as a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product available for use or consumption by customers. Or the company activities that make the product available to target customers. The dimensions of place are channels, assortment, location, inventory and transport. (Borden, 1984) For instance: Location, where customer can obtain the product so distribution channels are the key to this area. And in fact, many restaurant companies believe that location has become the most important factor to success. Warnaby and Dominic, 2004 highlight the advantages of shopping in town centers. Thus, the company will need to find ways to bring the products to customers and make the product easy to access to the customers. For instance: Convenience that is also important issue in food outlet patronage which the time and speed service is required, in order to satisfied the customers need and want. Place or distribution considerations play a major role in influencing customer motives. In the marketing of consumer goods, the role is to ensure that the product is available to the consumer when and where it is needed and in sufficient variety and quantity. Promotion It is defined as the activities that communicate the merits of the products and persuade target customers to buy or use the products. Company need to plan promotional activities properly in order to create awareness of potential customers. It is where advertising and communications are used to encourage customers uptake of the product or service. Promotion has several types of tools which are: Advertising, Sales promotion (discounts, coupons), Publicity, Word of Mouth, Personal Selling, Merchandising, Sponsorship and etc. The main reason why promotion is so important is to communicate with individuals, groups or organizations. Through promotion, the message like information about products or services can be communicated to existing and potential customers. Promotions can strengthen brand positioning. A 1985 study by Frankel and Co. and Perception Research Services found that, following exposure to adverts featuring promotions for a brand, consumers opinion of the brand( issues like quality, value and caring about customers ) improved by over 8 percentage compared to those exposed to only brand sell adverts. In other words, it must have the right facilities and services (product) and make them easily accessible to guests (place) with the proper amount of promotion and the right price. (David Abbey, 2003) Japanese food-Korean food Japanese and Korean foods are popular and are made of similar ingredients. However, the foods have their own taste, recipe and way of eating. Even though Korean food and Japanese food seems to be similar, both of them have their specialties. Japanese food and Korean food seems to be similar because they use same ingredient. For example, both of them use onions, green onions, red peppers, raw fish, and rice. Koreans and Japanese enjoy eating raw sliced fish, which are sushi and sashimi. Sushis ingredients are boiled rice, and raw sliced fish and sashimis ingredient is just as raw sliced fish. In addition, Korean and Japanese rice is the same. However, Korean and Japanese food is not totally same. Koreans tend to make food spicier and saltier than Japanese food. The price of Japanese food is higher than that Korean food. When people eat a meal at a Japanese restaurant, they should pay lots of money for their meal. For example, the basic foods like rice, sashimi, and some sea food cost thirty-five dollars per person. However, Korean basic foods, rice, main stew, and lots of side dishes cost just ten dollars per person. Japanese fresh seafood has high valuable, so most people prefer going to a Japanese restaurant like Benihana. Nevertheless, it is expensive. Every person has his/her own appetite, someone want to eat Japanese food and the other want to eat Korean food. Both foods may seem to be similar, because they are made of almost same ingredients. However, each of them has their own recipe, taste, and style of eating. Even though Japanese food is expensive, people like to eat Japanese food.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

daisys contribution to the great gatsby :: essays research papers

In one of the greatest works of the Twentieth Century, "The Great Gatsby" by F.Scott Fitzgerald, there are many dynamic and round characters which greatly add to the story's theme. One character, Daisy Fay Buchannon, is made essential by way of her relation to the theme. With her multi-dimensional personality and relation to the conflicts, she becomes needed in order to convey the meaning. Not only this, but she is also an important part of the plot. Daisy Buchannon is a round and dynamic character with many different sides to her personality. Early on in the book, she is portayed as sweet and innocent. Her white and seemingly floating dress appeals to Nick in this way. She grew up as "the most popular of all the young girls in Louisville." Even then she dressed in white. Daisy also keeps a daughter around as a show toy. Whenever company comes over, she beckons for the little girl to come and put on a little act for everyone. This is signifies her life. She is kept in the closet until it's time to show off for company. Daisy becomes radiant and personable. When everyone has gone, she is a bored housewife, of no importance to the world wondering aloud what she is going to do with the rest of her life. She appears to be bored yet innocent and harmless. Yet her innocense is false. Simply a materialistic young girl and has little mind of her own is underneath all of that covering. Daisy rediscovers her love with Gatsby because of his nice shirts and large house. Daisy has been well trained in a rich family. She has grown up with all of the best. When Gatsby failed to contact her, she went off and married another man, without evening having heard word from Gatsby. All of these many and round characteristics add complications to the plot and dimension to the meaning she adds to the book. The afore mentioned characteristics also help to create some of the main conflicts. Daisy was involved in the conflict between her and Tom. Tom had a mistress and Daisy was upset by it. Another conlfict is her love affair with Gatsby. Her appearent sweetness and innocence allow Gatsby to fall in love with her. But her impatience and ingorance of true love or the meaning of truth or compassion allow her to flawlessly marry Tom, without a sober thought of Gatsby. He falls for her, which leads up to the futher conflict. The conflict is, whether or not she will fall in love with Gatsby. Gatsby is still in love with her

Friday, October 11, 2019

What Impressions of the Characters Relationship Are Conveyed by the Language They Use, and the Interaction Between Them

What impressions of the characters relationship are conveyed by the language they use, and the interaction between them? In this text, the opening scene of Ibsen’s Dolls House, the conversation between Helmer and Nora shows who acts as a more authoritative figure through imperatives, patronising lexis and explanative language. This is to show the relationship between the married couple regarding terms of how they address each other. I will also consider gender theories such as Debora Tennen’s gender theory of politeness and Zimmerman and West’s suggesting men are more dominating in conversation.The purpose of the text, A Dolls House, is to reveal information about the relationship between Nora and Helmer through the interactions of their conversation and their lexis. Nora speaks in a polite manor, ‘just this minute’ which could be interpreted through Trudgill’s gender theory suggesting women use precise pronunciation to aim to be viewed at a h igher class. The adjective, ‘just’ could imply Nora will act quickly in order to respond to her husband because he has a higher status and power over herself.However, her husbands language is very different, ‘been wasting money again? ’ this rhetorical question implies a threatening and dominant tone. This could be interpreted by kZimmerman and West’s gender theory which suggests men act more dominant in conversation in order to gain and keep power. The terms of address the couple use change in relation to the conversation topic. Nora addresses her husband by his second name, ‘As you please, Torvald’ which could imply their relationship is formal and she has little authority as he holds all the power.This could be interpreted by Debora Tennen who states that women use terms of address and politeness to form bonds. However, Helmer addresses Nora in two different approaches; whilst they are having a general conversation Nora is referred to as his possession, ‘My little skylark’ the adjective ‘little’ implying she is belittled as she has no authority. Also, the use of the pronoun, ‘my’ implies Nora belongs to Helmer and she has control over her hence the metaphor for her name.However, when Nora ‘misbehaves’ she is addressed with her name, ‘Nora, Nora! Just like a woman! ’ his use of explanative language portrays his loss of patience with her but also he is telling her off like Nora is a child in a patronising manor. The repetition of ‘Nora’ implies she has done wrong and he dismisses her to get her to behave like a father would to a child. This could be interpreted by Grice’s maxims of quantity as he speaks more than Nora implying he has a higher level of authority and power.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Romanticism in Friedrich’s “The Monk by the Sea”

Darkness, emotions, and mysticism—these are just some of the terms that can be used to describe Friedrich’s â€Å"The Monk by the Sea. † Produced in 1809, this oil on canvass ideally characterizes the period to which the artist belongs: the Romanticism. With its subject, color, style, and theme, the artist successfully evokes the main tenets common during the Romantic Age. Formalist and thematic analyses of the work can lead modern viewers to a better understanding of the work and the message that the artist wants to convey. Brief Background Caspar David Friedrich was a German painter born in 1774 in Greifswald, Germany. Despite poverty, the artist received formal art study from artist Johann Gottfried Quistorp, who conducted art sessions outdoors. Exposure to the local color and environment thus helped the artist master the art of landscape. His paintings, which generally reveal tenets of the Romantic Age, make him â€Å"one of the most important artists during his time. † (Vaughan, 1972, 65). Particularly, as Murray (2004, 338) notes, his landscapes direct â€Å"the viewer's gaze towards†¦ metaphysical dimension†. His seascape titled, â€Å"Monk by the Sea† won admiration even from the 15-year-old King Frederick III Wilhelm of Prussia, whose purchase in 1810 declared the artist’s work as his masterpiece. Analysis of Form A formalist analysis of the painting suggests the artist’s overall craftsmanship. Minimalism best defines the style that the artist employed in his work. Basically, the image of the monk, which appears very minimal and solitary, helps achieve emphasis on the subject. The minimalist use of a variety of colors for the whole background readily implies the contrast between darkness and light that the artist wants to portray. Specifically, the submission of darkness to light or vice versa narrows down the color and texture of the painting. This minimalism of color and structure thus allows the author to present some characteristics ideal to Romantic art. The whole image can be divided horizontally into three different parts, namely, the sky, the sea, and the land. The great expanse of the sky, which covers at least â€Å"five-sixths of the canvass† (Web Gallery of Art, n. d. ), attracts attention considering the light it sheds on the whole image. Through devoting much space to the sky, the artist achieves artistic drama, which is very typical of the Romantic Movement. Specifically, the center clouds where a rich combination of colors is applied, capture the motion of light breaking into the darkness and at the same time the darkness eating up the light. Such drama found in nature suggests some Romantic thoughts that draw out sentimentality from the audience. Depicting the sea with great darkness, Friedrich made it a point to limit this part to at least one-eights of the canvass. This allows the other images, such as the sky, the land, and the monk to take form, while it allows the purpose of showing the location of the monk at the same time. On the one hand, the element of darkness suggests the artist’s tendency to contemplate on the darkness of nature and its mystery. On the other, it also suggests the themes of death and the obscure, which other painters similarly dealt on during this time (i. e. Goya, Delaroix). The monk standing by the sea seems lost and forlorn, thus unable to see the great storm coming. In a description by Marie von Kugelgen, one of Friedrich’s followers, the lady wrote to her friend Friederike Volkmann: â€Å"A vast endless expanse of sky †¦ still, no wind, no moon, no storm – indeed a storm would have been some consolation for then one would at least see life and movement†¦ On the unending sea there is no boat, no ship, not even a sea monster, [which] make the loneliness even more desolate and horrible† (Web Gallery of Art). This clearly shows the initial attention that the work garnered from the public. Widely recognized for the great landscapes he formerly depicted, the artist must have surprised his followers with the dark portrayal of the sea coupled by the view of the monk who seems to submit himself unrelentingly to the vast rupturing sky and the deep dark sea in front of him. Nevertheless, the purchase of King Frederick III Wilhelm helped the work gain much favor it deserved. Later on, Clemens Brentano’s description of the work suggests the acceptance of the work by the public. From the horrible experience the work evoked in Kugelgen, Brentano notes the splendid, infinite loneliness of the monk by the shore (Held, 2003). This shows the public’s appreciation of the work, following its acceptance by the king. In Brentano’s critique, we may note the contemporary viewer’s appreciation of the work, despite the loneliness it presents. This also shows the ability of the viewer to relate to the monk’s experience, thus reflecting the positive attitude toward the theme of death, which other Romantic artists and writers demonstrate in their works. Further to the thematic analysis of the work, one can perceive the artist’s idea of communing with nature. The idea of the monk leaving the monastery in order to enjoy or contemplate the quietness and simplicity of nature strongly suggests a Romantic attitude. However, aside from portraying the greatness of nature, the view also shows that while the Romanticists regard nature as beautiful and powerful, they also view it with â€Å"sensuous nuance. † The dark colors of the sky and the sea imply the coming of a destructive storm. This reflects Friedrich’s attempt to break the usual concept of a beautiful sky at midday. Anticipating the great storm, the audience may feel a certain concern for the monk, some anxiety that destructs quiet contemplation. In addition, the combination of darkness and light yields the artist’s spontaneity and freedom. Since the monk is the only figure meant to appear at vertical angle, the rest of the image appears to be painted with free hand and brushstrokes that conjure at some point with a vanishing effect in the light colors of the sky. Furthermore, the solitariness of the monk asserts the Romantic idea of individualism. Using the monk as subject reveals Friedrich’s attempt to explore on the thoughts and emotions of a common man. Normally looked upon for their wisdom and strength, the image of the monk amid the darkness and light somehow distracts the idea of perfection among the religious members of the society. This characteristic adheres to the Romantic Age by the artist’s â€Å"rejection of traditional values of social structure and religion. (Worldwide Art Resources Web Site, n. d. ) Through the use of nature, the artist reveals the monk’s seeming confusion and loneliness as he casts view at the sea. Although the audience may have different perceptions of the experience that the monk undergoes, the image nevertheless suggests the imperfection in the life of a monk, the loneliness that they undergo, and the need to take part in the usual activity of nature. Centering on a single hero, the w ork portrays the individual struggle of every monk. By making the monk turn his back from the audience, the artist portrays his contemplation. More importantly, however, this portrayal makes the monk anonymous. Depicting a monk in this way makes his experience—his struggles and loneliness—universal in nature. It also suggests the commonness of the place, the scenery, and the emotion, to which viewers can possibly relate. Brentano’s description of the work reflects the artist’s successful attempt to make the meaning universal. According to the author, the scenery allows the viewers to relate to the scene, making one feel that â€Å"one has gone there, that one must return, that one would like to cross over†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This implies that despite the centrality of the work to the image of the monk, the audience can still relate to the contemplative experience that Friedrich depicts. The universality of the subject and the surroundings makes one long to reflect on a similar struggle the audience may have had at certain points in their lives. Another Romantic characteristic that the work reflects is the artist’s interest in the mystical aspect of life, which he portrays through the mysterious and vast skies and the dark sea. As Brentano claims, these evoke mixed feelings, â€Å"from the horror of one viewer, comes a grayness of the other† (Held, 2003, 84). Such combination of emotions that the artist draws from the audience signifies its successful portrayal of the mystical motifs in life, such as the union between darkness and light, the Apocalyptic view of the skies, and the solitude that such a view creates in everyone who witnesses it. Showing the figure of the monk amid the chaotic tendency of nature suggests the mystic relation among God’s creation. Overall, the structure and theme that Friedrich employs in his work consistently reflect valuable characteristics of Romantic art. Up to now, the darkness, emotions, and mysticism that the artist projects through his choice of subject, color combination, tone and structure still provide the modern audience with the same experience that viewers of the painting had in 1809.

Five basic components of human societies Essay

There are five basic components of the human societies: population, culture, material products, social organization, and social institutions. These components may either deter or promote social change. The size of population will greatly affect the social change. If the population is large, chances are social changes will be promoted. More people will usually result in more ideas, pushing for changes because a larger population will generate more problems and it has a greater need for solutions. A large population will also have more norms and laws and sanctions. Culture includes values, beliefs, norms, knowledge, language, and symbols. Culture can both deter and promote social changes. A society’s belief and values can be essential for technology to grow and develop. Some societies tend to be more conservative and would like for things to continue to be the same, which will likely deter that society from social changes. However, as a society gained more knowledge, there will be people who will want to push for change because of that gained knowledge. New information and discoveries will result in new inventions. Material products consist of a limited amount. Material products will be more likely promote changes because people will try to find other alternatives for those existing products. Social organization is a network of relationship between its members. There are people who hold social positions and political roles that may deter or promote changes. Reformers who hold office positions will persuade more changes in society while conservationist will want things to remain the same. Social institutions consist of the education system, family, economy, government, and religion. A society’s education system has a big influence on the society. If that education system is promoting changes, people in that society will grow up having that thinking, vice versa. A person’s upbringing will also influence a person’s push for change or deterrence of change. The economy’s status holds great importance for change or not. If an economy is not doing so well, changes will likely occur. The government may be pushing for change if a reformist holds political position but if a conservationist will want things to be the same. Religion ties in with a  person’s belief and values. Depending on the religion, a person will be more likely to have moral values and religious beliefs that will either want change or deter from change.