Monday, September 30, 2019
Internal marketing is of much importance to an organization. For any organization to thrive, it must focus on the efficiency of the marketing plan. The internal marketing plan within a firm fosters the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and all its staff members to being customers of the products that they produce. When employees of an organization purchase the products that they produce, they attract external markets since the public out there will realize how important the products are to them, as much as to the employees. Members of staff are seen as both suppliers of the goods and also the customers of the products. This plan helps in strengthening the firm to employee relationship. When the firm management relates well with the employees, they are in a way motivated hence quality services will in turn be provided to the customers. Customers will be retained within the organization, thus enabling the company achieve a competitive advantage. It will be in a position to increase its sales according to the rampant growing demand. Also, the company will increase the process of profit making. In essence, efficiency in internal marketing allows for efficient external marketing efforts (Kotler & Armstrong, 2009). A good internal marketing plan usually has distinctive features. For instance, it should create a culture that enables it to outstand over the vast competitive markets. It is achievable when workers are encouraged to be creative and innovative, responsible and accountable. Employees should be given a chance to exploit their abilities and also to act in capacity as accountable leaders. The plan should also articulate equity, fairness, recognition and motivation of outstanding performers. Employees should not be treated according to their rank position, race or gender. This has been a major setback to development hence it should be avoided by all means. It should also accommodate room for furthering the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and knowledge. By fairness, an organization and its staff at large are encouraged to practice and embrace it. For example when someone close dies, support should be provided to his family. The organization can effectively deal with this issue through setting aside emergency funds (Ahmed & Rafiq, 2002). Coca cola as a company has embraced the use of internal marketing plan within its organization, and this has seen it stand still and strong despite the competition offered by Pepsi company which is as well a manufacturer of soft drinks. The company has been strategically managed and thus its products have been wide spread, not only in the United States but also to the rest of the world. It has adopted the use of the 7ps of marketing. The 7ps involves Product, Place, Price and Promotion, Physical Environment, People, Process. Product shows what the company produces and supplies to its vast markets. Examples of such products are sprite, coke and fanta, which mainly dominate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s markets. Place indicates the actual placement of the manufacturing firm. Currently, manufacture of coca cola products have been spread all over the world. Price is the most important aspect of marketing. The company is supposed to regulate the prices through the advice of senior sales representatives. It is the marked price that determines the number of customers an organization will have. Customers should be made aware of the recommended retail prices of the beverages produced. This is usually done so as to discourage the intermediaries from exploiting the customers. When goods are overpriced, the organizations competitors might take advantage of this to take away the customers. Coca Cola Company has taken an initiative of inscribing the products recommended prices in the bottle tops, thus preventing occurrence of inconveniences. In marketing, promotion enables the people to know the kind of products the company produces and also gives them a reason why they should purchase them. Promotion activities are crucial because it is the determining factor whether the business will stand or fall. Physical environment also plays an important role in marketing. The surrounding and the way people domiciling around where a company intends to establish its market agrees to allow the sales agent carry out its activities determines the business marketing future. People may be very hostile; hence the business may fail to establish its markets. The processes actually portray the channels a product passes through before being delivered to the end consumer. This may again involve how the consumer will handle the product. The employees of this company are given responsibility to manage brands through efficient marketing and also given priority to lay down achievable business strategies (Drake, Gulman & Roberts, 2005). Managing directors of the company are spread all over the world and the company entrusts them to establish reliable distribution channels, the targeted consumers and the marketing tools that boosts the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ sales. To ensure that it earns huge profits, the company has increased its sales employees and surely this act has enabled it to be at the top rank in the annual ranking of the best brands in the world. Such sales agents of the company do put into consideration a good customer relationship. They have a sense of efficiency in responding to customers needs thus majority of the consumers are retained. To obtain its employees, the coca cola company carries out recruitments. For one to qualify as an employee, he/she must pass the exams administered to them by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s directors. Also, they are taken through series of interviews and questionnaires, and their competences checked against the requirements of the company. While interviewing, the managers poses questions related to risk management, time management, how to attend to problems and also issues that focuses on leadership skills. After the employees are hired by the company, they are fed with adequate information about the company. This includes how it carries out its day to day activities, its mission and vision. In addition, the organizations goals and objectives are clearly stated to them. This allows the firm management to work together as one with its employees with target of realizing the successful outcome of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. Employees work output is usually measured in this company on yearly basis. They are rated according to how they have embraced the technology, how they have fostered a sense of leadership and also by how far they established a solid relationship with the consumers. In addition, their innovativeness is recognized and this is checked through analyzing how successful they have been in bringing the outsiders into the company. Their results in terms of making the company realize goals are normally detailed, and the outstanding performers motivated. This motivation can either take form of increasing their monthly pay, promoting them to higher ranks or even recognizing them by word of mouth. Employees who are deemed as less productive are taken through a probation training. After probation, they are again sent back to the field, and if by this time the company does not see any impact in their productivity, they are left with no option other than dismissing them (Palmer, et al. , 2006). Internal marketing has been of great benefits to the coca cola company. Despite encouraging its workers perform better, it has also allowed them to acquire knowledge on being responsible and accountable. The internal marketing has also enhanced better understanding of the organization in line with the business carried out. Employees have been motivated to offer goods of quality to their customers through appreciation of their outstanding performance. This plan has again increased the consumer retention capacity and also personal developments to its employees. Non marketers within the organization has also benefited since they have learned how to carry out their duties in manner-like marketing. To sum up, the internal marketing plan has linked the coca cola business culture, vision, mission and its stipulated strategies with the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social needs (Varey, 2002). Behind every successful organization, their must be a chain of problems encountered by it. Depending on how the firm embraces and handles their problems, their success is determined. Not all the employees accept change. Some becomes rigid when it comes to embracing the changes in technology. Some employees have deemed the use of computerized systems as a way of narrowing employment opportunities. Such employees can be termed as being illiterate from the fact that computers helps much in keeping efficient and effective inventory of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s undertakings. The company has also been faced problems based on incompetence of managers, much emphasis being in the use of interpersonal, conceptual and technical skills. The rampant spread of social evils such as corruption all over the world has seen the company employ incompetent personnel who lack skills in management. To add, the employed persons within the organization have been portrayed as not only having a poor understanding of the concepts of internal marketing but also as ignoring the orders from the senior staff (Kurtz, 2008). This has been a major problem towards successful establishment of internal marketing plan. Conflicts among the employees and also within different departments have also been a problem. People usually fight over the promotion position have made the work of implementing an internal structure difficult. To the side of the organization, some subordinates ignore the employees and does not put into consideration their welfare. Because of this, employees have reacted to fight for their rights and thus this has been a hindering factor. The spirit of synergy has also been greatly compromised since some top members of the organization over protect important information against its workers. Since there is no trust, the organization is as well less likely to embrace the concept of internal marketing. To summarize, the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure is in most instances rigid. It does not give room for frequent reviewing and thus this has affected the internal concept of marketing. As from the benefits discussed earlier on, it is unavoidably necessary to have an internal marketing plan. This is not only for the success of the business in its environs but also all over the world. Some of the tools that should be put into consideration in successfully implementing a good internal marketing plan involve encouraging employees to have frequent contacts with the human resource managers. The contact can be enhanced through use of e-mails, faxes, telephone services, newsletters and more reliably through physical contacts. This will encourage them to air their views about the welfare of the organization. Also, they will have a chance to openly air their grievances, more especially on the way they are handled as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. This allows fast reaction and implementation of their needs in a proper channel. More field work should be encouraged between the employees and their manager. This will allow them to share views freely with their manager and also gain experience. Since managers are normally viewed as people with experience, fieldworks will allow the employees too mingle with their managers and in the process taking note of work should be carried out (Dunmore,2002). Meetings of all the members of staff should be scheduled within reasonable time duration, for instance a fortnight or a month. This enables the organization as a whole to see how far they have gone in accomplishing its goals and objectives. It also allows them, together with its employees to check on the possible areas that they might have gone wrong in its day to day operations. From here, possible solutions are discussed and carefully thought out strategies of implementation laid out. Changes in career paths are also deemed as a tool of successfully implementing the internal marketing. The employees get to rate themselves on how good they are in sales department. They can check their performance in conjunction with the efforts they put while at work. If they find that marketing is a little pit strenuous, they can pave way for other junior employees and opt for other jobs. Changes in positions should be provided for to those employees initially put on probation. This allows them to be motivated to take up new roles within the organization. In addition, this decreases instances of boredom since the employees are subject to transfers to various departments and place of work. This act boosts the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ morale because they will be in a position to see as being attached to the company than before (Beamish & Ashford, 2007). Internal marketing workshops and also leadership concept seminars should be embraced by the organization. The firm should encourage its employees to attend such seminars as it enables them gain skills that prepares them for future managerial positions. Such seminars also encourage mutual relationship within the organization. Positioning of the employees should be in conformance with the required qualifications. Social evils such as corruption should be avoided within the organization as this may impact negatively to the company. Such people hired through crooked ways are the ones to collapse the same company since they have gotten used to their bad habits.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Nose Snotty October 11, 2010 English 112 Position Final The Cost of College Tuition The cost of college is very high compared to how the economy has been and how wages and financial aid have not risen with the cost of tuition. This makes it harder for students to graduate and brings a lot of stress to their lives. Without the funding that is needed many students drop out or take a longer time finishing their degree. Going to college is stressful enough without the need to worry about how youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to pay for it and what other costs will continue to rise with getting a degree.The cost of college is too high compared to the amount Americans make and how much they are expected to contribute. This issue is very close to me because I am attending college, along with many of my friends and hearing about their struggles with paying for college is something I hear about often and is something I constantly think about. Some of my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are paying for their educatio n and this is a great help to the students but this causes a strain on the parents and can make them decide to pull money out of their retirement (carpenter).While going to college is important it can be very tough to pay for it. Some students have to rely on student loans to pay, while others have parents who are paying for it, while others canÃ¢â¬â¢t go at all because it would be too hard financially and to their everyday life to be able to go. Finding the right way for you can be a process. While many jobs require a degree, the cost of getting one has risen very dramatically over the years. Colleges seem to be able to raise tuition with a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s notice and expect the student to deal with it.The government can only shake an angry finger at them because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to take complete control over the colleges all over America. How the parents, student, and government look at the cost, the need for a degree, and how they will pay for it determines how much they a re willing to sacrifice for it. Most parents want better for their children. To some this includes paying for their college education. With the economy with the way that it is and people losing their jobs all the time this can be harder than expected.This has caused many students to change their choice on which college to attend to a cheaper choice or go to a community college before going to a four year school. (Carpenter) This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a bad choice but it can be hard to transition from one school to another and hope that all the credits will transfer successfully. Many parents feel like they are letting their child down if they do not help them, but many believe that the student should pay for it them because it will help them learn responsibility with juggling school and a job. According to Public Agenda only 42% of students whose parents did not help them graduated (Clark).This could be blamed on how hard it can be to be working and to find time to fit in time not only for c lass but preparing for class without their parents help. This can help time management skills, but for a student to be able to graduate in four years and work enough to not have a mountain of debt can be a hard thing to accomplish. Something else that also comes up is itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just tuition that has to be paid for, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also all the fees added on and the costs that most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about when budgeting for school like food for each week and transportation.With added on fees for every class it can be very frustrating so how the student pays for college affects a lot of aspects in their lives. The government has done a lot to help students with grants and scholarships so that they can afford college. With FAFSA many families are given money that they would otherwise not have so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about bettering themselves while struggling to make tuition payments. But what about the students whose parents make too much to get any grant money, b ut their parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough money or donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to pay for them going to college?Tuition costs have raised very quickly compared to the amount of grants or scholarships available. In Indiana the university trustees set the tuition cost but many legislators are asking them to think about keeping it lower or not raise them at all (Kenly). The government thinks that the parents should be responsible for helping students pay until they are 24, married, a veteran, or have a child (Clark). This leaves a lot of students in need of help before any of these things happen.For a student to file as in independent they first need to be 24 even if they are not living with their parents and are on their own. Many students would qualify for financial aid if they could file independently but this stipulation leaves them to flounder by them. Also if a student graduates at the age at 18 and goes to school for four years this would only make them twenty-two and they would never mak e it to get financial aid as an independent so, they would have to get loans unless they were awarded scholarships.Having financial aid and grants from the government have helped a lot students go to college who otherwise couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t but it also leaves many students out who do not fit into the formula created for everyone. Going to college is a great way to better someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s self but getting to the degree is much harder than just being a good student. Parents can only provide so much as well as the government but the rising cost of tuition with the financial far behind it is outrageous. It is understandable that universities need money to run themselves but the dramatic increase each year is something to wonder about.This is a close to home topic for me because I fall in the bracket where my parents cannot afford my education, but I do not receive any financial aid so my only option is to get loans. The government cannot provide for everyone but making college more afforda ble for everyone would really help our nation rise up to be more competitive with other countries. It is very sad for students who are hard workers and have the ability to get a degree, but the price discourages them from accomplishing that goal. College is an important step in many peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives in the world today.It is a requirement for many jobs and can help people reach more goals than without it. Some people believe that the need for college is greater than the sacrifice that is needed to get a degree. Even with the economy today college should be something that everyone should strive for no matter what the cost is. With a degree you can earn more money, get better jobs, and be more of an educated person. This is vital to many people in their everyday lives. With a college education you can earn double than having just a high school diploma (Longley).This makes the debt and sacrifices people make to go to college very important to better themselves. Without those sacrif ices a person could not get a better paying job and provide for their families or help better other things in their lives. The sacrifices that are needed to be made can be paid off with the bettering of oneself with a degree and to some this can be priceless. How the parents, student, and government look at the cost, the need for a degree, and how they will pay for it determines how much they are willing to sacrifice.The need for a degree and the cost of getting a degree can be analyzed and give facts and figures of how important or how unimportant it is to struggle with things that are required to graduate. The good can outweigh the bad but getting there can be a hard process, but some believe that the way it is now is a fine way to get to the end goal, because the end goal can be so rewarding.Works Cited 1. Carpenter, Dave Ã¢â¬Å"Cost of Degree is Forcing some to go to Plan B. Ã¢â¬ Associated Press. 26 September 2010. http://www. msnbc. msn. om/id/39277351/ns/business- personal _finance/. 14 October 2010. 2. Clark, Kim Ã¢â¬Å"Should your kids pay for their college? Ã¢â¬ 11 December 2009. http://www. usnews. com/articles/education/2009/12/11/should-your-kids-pay-for-college-themselves. html 15 October 2010. 3. Kenley, Luke Ã¢â¬Å"Response to High College Cost. Ã¢â¬ Indianapolis Star. 20 September 2010. Print. 15 October 2010. 4. Longley, Robert Ã¢â¬Å"College Degree Nearly Doubles Annual EarningsÃ¢â¬ http://usgovinfo. about. com/od/censusandstatistics/a/collegepays. htm. 31 October 2010.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
How invention of the Internet changed the world? How it contributes to the spread of democracy? Does it have any impact on it? These questions are under debate till nowadays. In this paper, I will try to express my viewpoint on this dispute. To begin with, let briefly look at the Egyptian revolution which was held in 2011. It was the first revolution where social media and Internet played the crucial role. Ã¢â¬ After 30 years of living in a Ã¢â¬Å"fake democratic systemÃ¢â¬ under Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian people had had enoughÃ¢â¬ (Pritamkabe, 2011). After fake election in 2010, people, especially young generation, decided to make a protest in order to create a real democratic system. Ã¢â¬Å"There was no freedom of assembly in Egypt, and protests or political activism was bannedÃ¢â¬ (Pritamkabe, 2011), but social media helped people to band together . Using Twitter and Facebook, people were discussing and organizing protests against the government. Government was not happy about this and later it shut down access to the Internet for 5 days. It made situation even worse and people started to show their disappointment on the streets. A lot of videos were posted on the Youtube and the whole world could be aware about the following circumstances. All in all, the new elections were held and citizens had an opportunity to elect the new president. From this revolution, we can see how much power Internet has nowadays and that this type of media can provide actual and not fake information for other countries. One of the key elements of democracy is the good governance that means that government should focus on public interest and act in behalf of its citizens. Everybody would agree that due to the Internet, it is easier to access information you need. It enables governments, political parties and other political organizations to interface with citizens and present their ideas that lead to an increase in political participation and stimulate democracy. In addition, it allows you as the citizen to meet and exchange the views all the parties concerned. Moreover, Internet and other media help people to be aware what is going on around the world and to be up-to-date about global events. It makes people more educated and helps to make rational decisions. The other element of democracy is a freedom of opinion, speech, press and mass media. Internet is a place, where all these things became possible. Due to the Internet, people can speak their mind, share their own opinions and the most importantly Ã¢â¬â they would be heard. Now people have an opportunity to come together online and discuss on worldwide problems, provide advices and try to find solutions. Here even long distance does not play a role and it is a huge advantage of the Internet. Government accountability, and have checks and balances in a constitutional system, are crucial elements required for the functioning of a real democracyÃ¢â¬ (Pritamkabe, 2011). In order to build a good relationship between state government and its citizens, there must be transparency of governmental actions. As the result, it builds trustworthy relationship between people and government that leads to better political participation and fair elections, better observation of election results and reduction of corruption. In fact, Internet and e-governance helps to create it. Certainly, Internet has its negative side. It can be used to promote violence in the world, such as terrorist attacks. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"terrorist groups like Al Qaeda have been using internet for spreading extremist and anti-American viewÃ¢â¬ (Pritamkabe, 2011). There are still a lot of gang-related videos in such sites as a Youtube, which promote violent actions and incorporates more and more people. Moreover, from the Egypt example, we can see that government have a power to turn off Internet connection with respect to its own interests. It seems to be a violation of democratic system, there freedom of speech, press and mass media have to exist. To conclude, even that Internet have a negative effects on the spread of democracy, generally its positive factors overweight the negative side. I estimate that Internet possibilities, such as we know them today, are not available in non-democratic states. The development of the Internet is a result of joint actions among governments, commercials companies and individuals. It is the result of free movements of ideas and international cooperation on a global scale. In fact, these actions are heavily restricted in non-democratic countries. In authoritarian countries, Internet is used as a tool for the democratic opposition. It is used by the people who are fighting for human rights, free elections and political freedom. Therefore, Internet is a tool for spreading democracy and rooting out authoritarian rule.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Global Structures and Local Cultures - Essay Example We would start with looking into the definitions racism to determine, what exactly racism is. Building upon it, we would drill down into the matter that what is considered by us as racism and what really is racism but is not considered by us as so. In the end, we would be inquiring for the reasons of such a continuous racism in the human history. This definition thus shows that usually racism is considered as racism only when the racist feelings are executed by the racist. The very word racism connotes some feeling on the basis of race, but since over the history, we have observed such feelings by the majority, as only the majority could execute such feelings, the notion of racism is made limited, by the people, only to those who have such prejudices and are in a position to execute them. However, from the sociological point of view, we would be taking the definition of the racism as the feeling that one's race is superior to others', regardless of the fact that whether those feelings were executed or not. (Bell and Blumenfeld 1995) It is one of the major stereotypes regarding racism that only Whites are the racist. Such feelings are quite evident from the literature written over the period of time. (Miles and Brown 2003) It is however a noteworthy fact that whenever we talk about racism, we have in our mind the execution of the racist feelings. It is a common stereotype that we always consider the party showing the racial behavior is bad while the party to whom such behavior is shown is nice. (Carter 2000) This stereotype has been developed because we have seen the so-called racist from the perspective of the victim. But if we change the perspective, we may find that this is not always the battle of good and evil, nice or vile. People have a habit to look at everything from the perspective of discreteness, to look everything as black or white, people tend to ignore gray areas, as a result of it this perspective has been developed and rooted very firmly in the mind of people that the person who shows racist beh avior is evil while since another party is victim so being the victim makes that party as good and non-racist. Now, it is the time to look at the matter from a neutral point of view. In this regards, first of all we need to determine that execution of the racist feeling does not make a person racist, only the existence of such feeling makes it so. Secondly we need to make it sure that the so-called racist can also be nice, depending on the victim of the racism, the standpoint of the racists etc. (Leone 1978) There may be
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Stereotypes - Essay Example As the paper discussesÃ knowing a lot of stuff may seem harmless, albeit insufficient, but the problem is that to shape schools around this goal, dressed up with pretentious labels like "cultural literacy", have, the effect of taking time away from the more meaningful objectives, such as knowing how to thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦the Bunch o' Facts model proves a poor foundation on which to decide who is properly educated...It is as poor basis for designing curriculum as is it for judging the success of schooling.Ã This study outlines thatÃ completely agree with Kohn that cramming up or memorizing, some isolated facts, and then getting good grades on that basis by scoring high on standardized tests, surely ensures a certificate for the student and consequentially may get him a job, but the basic and pricking question remains that have those hours in the class room been helpful in making him an educated person. The basic question to be asked here is that, is the aim of education only to get a j ob after certain years of spending time in school or does it go beyond that. The scope of education lies well beyond the limited boundaries we as policy makers, teachers, parents and most importantly students have set for ourselves. The traditional way of spreading knowledge makes us smart and repeating myself well trained in our chosen discipline, but it in no way implies that we are well educated, so what we are really receiving in the name of education is Ã¢â¬Å"edukatischÃ¢â¬ .
Vobes Company - Research Paper Example at low process and also expects to capture a large market share by attracting the target customers mostly in the age group of 25 to 45 who prefer to use cabs for traveling. Vobes Company aims at serving the customers with the transport services 24 hours a day. It also aims at providing discounts to the customers so that they are attracted to their services and develop brand loyalty. The market research suggests that there are around thousands of local customers who prefer to avail taxi services during the peak hours. Further the company also aims at providing online booking services to the customers and plan to launch an application for the smart phone users in the markets of Dammam. The break even analysis of the Vobes Company states that the company would earn a profit in the first year and the profit is expected to rise in the later years. The breakeven point is located in the fifth month when there is a no profit and no loss situation and then after that the company starts earning profit. The total profit in the first year is around $15580 that increases in the later years as depicted in the three years income statement. The company plans to purchase 15 cars of $24,700 each and rent them at $30 per day. Madawi Alsulaim and Sara Alghamdi are the two business associates who plan to invest $25000 each for establishing the business. Fund are to be raised by borrowing loans from the banks as well that is around $40000 is to be borrowed for establishment as well as the promotional activities to conduct the business efficiently. The idea of setting up the Vobes Company is to provide transportation services in Dammam, Saudi Arabia for the convenience of the local people to travel to places according to their needs. The business is expected to attract a wide range of customers towards availing these services. As the population of Saudi Arabia increases there is an increasing demand for the transport and communication facilities (Alhussein, 2011). Thus the company
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Battle of Guadalcanal - Term Paper Example However, by August 1942, the American marines landed on the GuadalcanalÃ¢â¬â¢s northern beaches after the firing of Navy ships ahead of them. About three months later, the Marine managed to secure the airfield, as well as about six miles wide on the beach section (Braun and Alexander 232). This paper thereby drills deep into the Battle of Guadalcanal, its operations, and scrutinizes the Allied and Japanese leadership during the war. Allied forces, predominantly from America, landed on Guadalcanal by 7th August 1942, seizing an airfield that had been under construction by the Japanese military- the airfield was later named as Henderson Field (Coggan 162). Subsequently, several attempts and efforts made by the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army tremendously failed as they used ships to deliver reinforcements to Guadalcanal, with a sole aim of recapturing the airfield. By early November, 1942, Japanese military organized a transport convoy that would take about seven thousand infantry tr oops and equipment to the island of Guadalcanal- their core intent being to make an attempt once again, which would aid their struggle to retake the airfield. According to Braun and Alexander, lots of Japanese warships and forces were allotted to attack the Henderson Field with a central aim of destroying Allied aircrafts, which posed threats to their convoy (248). After observing and learning the Japanese efforts of reinforcement and retake, the United States military forces launched warship and aircraft combats in order to defend the Henderson Fields, and hence prevent or bar the Japanese navy and ground troops from nearing the Guadalcanal area. Braun and Alexander reveals that for strategic purposes, the possession of an airfield or airbase within Guadalcanal was vital to the control of sea-line-communications between Australia and the United States (241).
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The Beginning And Development Of Gothic Architecture - Case Study Example The characteristics of Gothic architecture gave the specific definition which was related to what is often referred to as the French style, beginning in the 12th century and going through the 16th century. The architecture was most often used as high art and was created for cathedrals, castles, palaces and other governmental buildings. Many often referred to the style as one which was regarded as belonging to higher powers, which was why it was used for these specific types of buildings. The original term was created by Giorgio Vasari in 1530 in response to a culture which was considered rude. Most during this time believed that the group should be outcast. To represent this, different symbols were used to show that vandals and others within society shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be present in specific buildings. The architecture of the building is then made to symbolize the individuals who should not enter into a given place (Glaser, 15). The main beliefs and descriptions with the Gothic architec ture then led into concepts which were associated with the symbolic meaning that was created, most which was in reference to the Christian and high-quality attributes which would not welcome others within the region. The features which were used, inclusive of ornate structures and intricate decor became some of the defining parts of the architecture. ... The main focus was designed with both a vertical emphasis, which pointed upwards as a symbol to the higher powers as well as with the concept of having as much light in the building as possible (Murray, p. 18). An example of Gothic architecture can be seen in influences such as the Notre Dame church, as seen in figure 1. Figure 1: Church of Notre Dame In this figure, the elements of the Gothic can be seen. At the lower area, there are three arches which one can enter, all of which are rounded.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Police Brutality Law - Research Paper Example This essay will explicate police brutality in United States and delve into records of frequency, severity and ramification of police brutality exacted against civilians. Brutality Police brutality is one of those alarming human rights violations done by person of authorities against civilians who are possible suspects or those already serving their sentences as adjudged criminals. Roberts (2011) pointed that in youtube alone, an e-site containing video records, produced about 497,000 results when "police brutality" is subjected into the search engine. Roberts (2011) described that these videos either depict beaten women, kids and the aged or violent and bloody exaction of testimonies from unwilling suspects. Some testimonies of victims who were able to undergo sad ordeal revealed electrocution; suffocation, psychological torment or threat; emotional shocks; direct physical assault, and the like done by police with psychopatic and sociopath tendencies. Skolnick and Fyfe (1993) explica ted that police brutality brought along with it such dehumanizing intent by treating the target with such concealed venality and such degrading impact of violent torture. Roberts (2011) attributed this inhuman way of managing suspects, civilians and victims to militarist treatment as abuse of power. Those who are involved in police brutality tactics are characterized with such nastiness as they were trained to view the public, the people whom they ought to secure, as their enemy. To some extent, some police officers have made policing activity leveled beyond preservation of order into cyclical patterns of injustice as commission of human rights. Often logged without witnesses to corroborate the conduct of brutalities, Bandes (1999) noted that authorities would just label this as an incident which is either isolated, systemic, or part of a larger pattern to suppress a movement. Bandes (1999) explicated that police brutality are often portrayed by court as something anecdotal, fragmen ted and isolated from institutional pattern (p. 1275) reinforced by causes that could be political, social, psychological and cultural (Bandes, 1999, p. 2). Experts opined that victims of police brutality would have difficulty expressing such unfair victimization because complaints about it are discouraged due to dearth of evidences, lack of corroborative testimonies, records are expunged, and police records are purposively made inaccessible. Victims are also doubly confronted with difficulty in baring experiences out of restrictive evidentiary rulings, of judicial insensitivity to police perjury, of the law of omerta or total silence, of assailantÃ¢â¬â¢s immunity from punitive actions (Bandes, 1999, p. 7). Thus, there is perceived failure to correct endemic system of police lawlessness and adherence to violence, often directed to powerless and marginalized members of specific communities. Police brutality is not simply a violent act. More often, these are kinds of security manage rs who are in collaboration with groups and decision-makers who lacked respect to procedures that are legally provided. The prevalence of these cases on police brutality simply depict the need to address the problem not only at the institutional level but must be comprehensively rectified by in-depth investigation; of brutality cases demystification, and strict enforcement of the administrative laws to hasten the professionalization of police forces. Empirical studies based on
Sunday, September 22, 2019
A Review of Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, by John Perkins Essay Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, by John Perkins, is supposed to be a book about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s real life activities as a covert agent of the United States. Unlike other agents, Perkins alleges that he and others, operated to undermine the economic stability of other nations. While this book uses a number of references, few of these books seems to have any economic relevance at all. One book, The Blood Bankers: Tales from the Global Underground Economy, by James S. Henry, does make similar claims to those of Perkins; however, unlike Perkins, Henry investigates worldwide economic crimes that are both overt and subversive in nature. Perkins states that he was recruited to work as a covert agent of the government shortly after graduating from college. In his role as an economic hit man, Perkins was expected to meet with leaders of various countries, to convince them to make large investments and to accept loans for which they can ill afford to make the payments. These machinations resulted in these countries being in debt to larger powers, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, often in more ways than one. After a time, Perkins claims, he grew uncomfortable with his role and left his position as an economic hit man. Perkins claims that now that he is no longer a part of this corrupt operation, he feels compelled to tell his story. Perkins claims that he has good reason to write this book. By telling his story, he claims that not only can he make people aware of what is happening all over the world, but that he can also create solutions to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic problems. If this book has any one flaw, however, it is in PerkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ credibility. Despite his claims that he was responsible for economic subterfuge, Perkins never backs his claims with undeniable facts, statistics, or figures. Neither does he connect his work with any other texts or documents that have a firm factual grounding. His bibliography is not scholarly in nature; rather, virtually all of his sources are secondary. The points that Perkins makes may have some validity. While this book was interesting to read, however, a critically thinking reader would have to question his role in the events that he claims occurred.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Lift of a Flat Surface in Wind When working with lift, there are several concepts[AR2]that need to be considered, most prominently Bernoullis Principle. This principle, named for its creator Daniel Bernoulli, states that when an incompressible, smoothly flowing fluid gains speed, internal pressure in the fluid decreases, and vice versa. (Hewitt, 2004) Put simply in terms of aerodynamics, Bernoulli states that when a fluids speed increases, the pressure perpendicular to the flow of the fluid is decreased. For example, the Bernoulli Effect can be clearly observed in terms of a plane in flight. Planes are able to fly [ar3]because their wings are designed to cause air to flow faster over the top than the bottom. This creates lower are pressure above the wing, and the greater pressure below the wing pushes the plane up. This upward pressure is referred to as lift force, or simply lift. (Actforlibraries.org, 2017) [ar4]Ã Ã Lift is generated by deflecting airflow. By taking Newtons second law of motion (), it can be stated that the aerodynamic forces on a body with 0 drag [ar5]relate directly to the change in momentum of the fluid, which is equal to mass velocity of the fluid. (Hall, 2015) An objects lift capabilities can be measured using the equation: Where =density, =velocity, =surface area and =Coefficient of Lift. (Hodanbosi, 1996) Lift is dependent on velocity, air density, air viscosity/compressibility, the shape of the body and the bodys inclination in relation to the airflow. The velocity variable in the equation is, therefore doubling the velocity will quadruple the lift etc. Additionally, dependence on shape, viscosity/compressibility and inclination is complex; to deal with these they are characterized as a single variable, known as the coefficient of lift. (Hall, 2015) The lift coefficient, used to model the complex dependencies on lift, can be obtained using the equation: Where lift, the dynamic pressure () and surface area. Therefor, expresses the ratio of lift force to dynamic pressure times surface area. (Hall, 2015) It is most often found experimentally, however the values for this experiment have been taken from Aerospaceweb.com. (Jeff, 2003) Also, by using an International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) table, the air density variable for this experiment shall be assumed to be 0.9337kgm3, based on an assumed altitude of approx. 691m above sea level. (Cavcar, N/A) Lift is dependent of several variables, including inclination. The angle between a surface and the airflow is referred to as the angle of attack. The angle of attack has a strong effect on the lift being produced. In terms of an airplane: when an airplane is preparing to take off, it accelerates swiftly to reach the required velocity. However, just before lifting off, the pilot tilts the wings, creating a greater angle of attack and giving the airplane the required lift to leave the ground. In terms of surfaces such as thin aerofoils and roofs, the coefficient of lift is directly proportional to the angle of attack, when the angle is within +/- 10ÃâÃ °. For larger angles, the dependence becomes quite complex and is therefore defined by a coefficient of lift. (Hall, 2015) By using the above lift equation, theoretical equations can be created to assist in the analysis of the outcome of the experiment, for example: Where 3.61ms-1 (calculated using the iOS app Wind Meter), the area of one of the roof pieces and the corresponding coefficient of lift[AR6]. Below are the full results of the theoretical calculations performed for this experiment: Lift Applied to Roofs of Different Areas and Inclinations 0.0025m2 0.01 m2 0.015265 m2 0.0225 m2 0ÃâÃ ° 0.015N 0.061N 0.093N 0.137N 15ÃâÃ ° 0.011N 0.043N 0.065N 0.096N 30ÃâÃ ° 0.013N 0.052N 0.079N 0.116N 45ÃâÃ ° 0.016N 0.064N 0.098N 0.144N 60ÃâÃ ° 0.013N 0.052N 0.079N 0.116N Table 1 (created using[JB7] MS Excel) Ã Ã Graph 1 (created using MS Excel) Based on these calculations, it can be assumed that the lift force will always peak at around 45ÃâÃ °, reach the minimum around 15ÃâÃ ° and follow an identical pattern for each roof size[AR8]. Based on the above background research, a hypothesis can be formulated regarding the factors affecting lift force. It can be hypothesized that: The lift applied to a surface in wind is dependent on its surface area and angle relative to the airflow. This relationship peaks towards larger angles and surface areas.[AR9] An electronic balance was set up on a workbench and turned on, ensuring the units were set to grams. An electronic balanced was utilised for this experiment because lift, as a force, can be recorded by measuring how much mass is being lifted away from the balance (in negatives) and converting this into Newtons. The fan was placed approximately 0.3m away from the electronic balance, adjusted to direct the airflow directly above the balance. The base piece of cardboard, measuring 0.1m by 0.15m (10cm2 by 15cm2), was attached to the balance with electrical tape, ensuring the edge (not the flat side) was directed at the fan. The first roof piece (measuring 0.0025m2, or 25cm2) was attached to the base piece, then the balance was TARED. The fan was turned on, set at speed 1. Three results were recorded from the balance[AR10] before the fan was turned off. The roof piece was removed, the first angled piece (at 15ÃâÃ °) attached the roof piece re-fixed. The balance was again TARED and the fan was then turned back on, three results recorded and turned off again. This process was repeated for every roof piece (measuring 0.0025m2/25cm2, 0.01m2/100cm2, 0.015265m2/156.25cm2 and 0.0225m2[AR11]/225cm2) fixed to every angled piece (at 15ÃâÃ °, 30ÃâÃ °, 45ÃâÃ °, 60ÃâÃ ° and 0ÃâÃ °). An average was later taken of each group of results, and these averages were graphed in Excel for further in-depth analysis. There were several variables involved with this experiment. The independent variables were the wind speed (which was controlled by using of the same fan), the roof area and the roof angle, and the dependent variable was the lift. The controlled variables included the use of the same[AR12] electronic balance, roof, angle and base pieces and the same speed setting on the fan, the position of the fan/airflow, the position of the scales and the position of the base piece and, by extension the roof structures.[AR13] These variables were controlled to ensure that all results are viable and in agreement. In order to maintain safety in this experiment, the following procedures were implemented: Safety glasses were worn, the electronic equipment was kept away from water, the guard around the blades was not touched while the fan was running, the cardboard was handled carefully so as not to cause paper cuts and, likewise, when the cardboard pieces were cut out the scissors were handled with care.[AR14] Lift Applied to Roofs of Different Areas and Inclinations 0.0025 m2 0.01 m2 0.015265 m2 0.0225 m2 0ÃâÃ ° 0.056N 0.175N 0.250N 0.287N 15ÃâÃ ° 0.075N 0.186N 0.259N 0.242N 30ÃâÃ ° 0.103N 0.159N 0.159N -0.640N 45ÃâÃ ° 0.111N -0.556N -0.620N -0.770N 60ÃâÃ ° 0.056N -0.631N -0.715N -0.787N Table 2 (created using MS Excel) Overall, the results of this experiment are plausible [AR16]at best. When comparing the empirical data to the theoretical data listed above, there are very few similarities and patterns. However, on close examination of the results there are several small connections. For example, even though each set of points has a different pattern, most of these patterns are similar in shape, and each set peaks at or before 45ÃâÃ °. However, from here the theoretical and empirical are completely different. A likely reason for the dramatic differences between the two sets of results is the conditions under which the experiment was performed. Despite the actions taken, there were still a number of uncontrollable variables that may have affected the outcomes recorded. For example, the air-conditioning unit operating on the roof may have disrupted the airflow, resulting in a less continuous stream and thus a more unpredictable amount of lift. Similarly, the fan used in the experiment may not have provided a strong enough direct flow of air to the structure, also causing anomalous results[AR17]. However, despite the obvious anomalies in results, the experiment still manages to examine the relationship between angle of attack, surface area and lift force. For three of the four data sets (excluding 0.0025m2) the graphs follow a very similar pattern, indicating that the results are accurate in terms of the relationship, not the actual data observed. In addition, all data sets drop off after they reach 45ÃâÃ °, showing that, just as observed in the theoretical results, lift force reaches its peak at around 45ÃâÃ ° inclination into the wind. The most likely reason for this is that past this inclination the structure presents a greater amount of its surface into the wind, allowing it to be pushed down. This phenomenon creates the positive mass results seen in the table above. This was not accounted for in the theoretical equations, which may have caused some of the anomalous results stated above[AR18]. Another prominent difference between empirical and theoretical results is the distinct differences between lift values in the theoretical data. These data sets remain at a fixed distance apart for the entire graph, directly opposed to the empirical data points which for the most part are plotted very close together. This illustrates a lower difference in lift force between different surface areas, however these results are likely due to the unstable nature of the structure used in the experiment. [AR19]Particularly in terms of the larger roof pieces, the structure became more unsteady, possibly resulting in the lower lift force recorded above. In terms of the patterns observed in the empirical data, the larger roof sizes do produce more lift, however past their peak they also create more downward force. While the smallest size does generate the greatest lift, the three larger sizes do produce an increasing amount of lift, in comparison with each other. As mentioned previously, the structure used in the experiment, particularly with the larger roof piece attached, was very unstable. [AR20]This is a likely reason for the outlying point for the area of 0.0225m2 at an inclination of 30ÃâÃ °. This surface area is the largest used, and it was very unstable atop the base piece, often sliding to the side and not remaining square with the base. Most likely, this instability is what has caused such an obvious anomaly, as the roof piece sliding may have exposed a larger surface area to the airflow, thus created more downward force and less upward lift. Therefore, with the above considerations it mind, and despite the severe anomalies between theoretical and empirical data, the hypothesis of: The lift applied to a surface in wind is dependent on its surface area and angle relative to the airflow. This relationship peaks towards larger angles and surface areas. Is supported by this experiment.[AR21] When performing an experiment, there are always a multitude of variables that affect the outcome, and a variety of ways in which the processes can be improved upon to achieve a better result. For example, in this experiment an ordinary household fan was used to generate the required airflow. Such a device is designed to provide air to an entire room, not to provide a direct flow of air such as is required to make this experiment a success. To make the experiment more successful, a more direct airflow should be utilised, possibly by making use of a wind tunnel, or even a hair dryer[AR22]. Similarly, the electronic balance used to take measurements was only a small, relatively simple piece of equipment. Also, as previously mentioned, the air-conditioning unit in the room was likely disrupting the already-unsteady airflow. This, along with the experiments position next to the doorway and the other people in the room, may have been the cause of the discrepant results, which often differed by up to 0.0015kg. To solve this, the experiment could be re-conducted in a controlled environment with nothing affecting the more direct airflow. Additionally, a more accurate electronic balance could be used[AR23]. A more accurate balance would a piece of equipment connected to a computer that records all results for each set of tests and identifies an accurate average. The most prominent issue with the experiment was the results created by the electronic balance. The results were greatly varied, as stated above, suggesting that there were several uncontrolled variables at play, affecting the data. There are several methods that could be employed to rectify this, including those already mentioned. Performing the experiment in an isolated area where all variables can be controlled so nothing can interfere with the results is the most likely way to generate more accurate results. This, coupled with the use of a more stable structure (i.e. made from a sturdier material and fixed for effectively), a more accurate airflow and more sophisticated measuring technologies, is the best course to re-perform the experiment and give more viable results. ReferencesÃ Actforlibraries.org, 2017. Bernoullis Principle of Lift. [Online] Available at: http://www.actforlibraries.org/bernoullis-principle-of-lift-4/[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Aerodynamics for Students, 2016. Lift and Lift Coefficient. [Online] Available at: http://s6.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/aerodynamics/index.php/sample-page/aircraft-performance/lift-and-lift-coefficient/[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Benson, T., 2014. Lift Formula. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/WindTunnel/Activities/lift_formula.html[Accessed 09 March 2017]. Cavcar, M., N/A. The International Standard Atmosphere. [Online] Available at: http://home.anadolu.edu.tr/~mcavcar/common/ISAweb.pdf[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Hall, N., 2015. Inclination Effects on Lift. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/incline.html[Accessed 19 March 2017]. Hall, N., 2015. Lift Equation. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/vel.html[Accessed 02 March 2017]. Hall, N., 2015. The Lift Coefficient. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/liftco.html[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Hall, N., 2015. Velocity Effects on Aerodynamic Forces. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/vel.html[Accessed 02 March 2017]. Hewitt, P. G., 2004. Bernoullis Principle. [Online] Available at: http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=49598[Accessed 02 March 2017]. Hodanbosi, C., 1996. Lift Formula. [Online] Available at: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/WindTunnel/Activities/lift_formula.html[Accessed 02 March 2017]. HyperPhysics, N/A. Bernoulli Equation. [Online] Available at: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html[Accessed 02 March 2017]. Jeff, S., 2003. Airfoils at High Angles of Attack. [Online] Available at: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/airfoils/q0150b.shtml[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Physics Forum, 2011. Fluid mechanics; Lift Force on a Roof; Bernoullis Equation. [Online] Available at: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/fluid-mechanics-lift-force-on-a-roof-bernoullis-equation.533145/[Accessed 02 March 2017]. Scott, J., 2003. Airfoils at High Angle of Attack. [Online] Available at: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/airfoils/q0150b.shtml[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Scott, J., 2003. Lift Coefficient Thin Airfoil Theory. [Online] Available at: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/aerodynamics/q0136.shtml[Accessed 04 March 2017]. Ã
Friday, September 20, 2019
Productivity Rate Of Roof Works For Project Scheduling Construction Essay Abstract: In Malaysia, there is no research done specifically on collecting construction productivity data to serve as a guideline and standards for use by all players in the construction industry. Similar to JKR, as the largest implementers of government projects, the current practice on approval the schedule of works that submitted by contractors are mostly based on the engineers gut feeling/opinion and past experience. There is no standard procedure and guidelines to review and checking the duration and resources allocation in each activity in contractors work program. As an effort, this study will start with focusing on the identification of factors that influencing roofing works productivity in construction project. Those factors can be obtained through a series of statistical analysis based on the data collected from questionnaire and interview with the experts. Data from previous projects also very important in order to get the actual productivity rate for roof works. Finally, the expected finding for this study will be: a) List of factors that influence the productivity rate for roof works, b) The critical factors affecting most to productivity rate for roofing works, c) A metrics of productivity rate for roof works as a standard and guideline for improving JKR projects scheduling. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Managing construction projects always requires constant monitoring of project performance and the updating on project schedule. Project performance data and productivity data from the construction field is a key role in evaluating and predicting project performance in term of cost and schedule. According to Motwani et al. (1995), the productivity in construction has always been very difficult to measure and control. Even though, productivity in construction hard to measure, there is a need to use it for timely decisions and reduce the negative impacts on cost and schedule. Therefore, the integration of historical productivity data with the on-going performance data in construction field are required (Hwang and Liu, 2005). Hwang and Liu, (2009) presented that an accurate productivity prediction is important for managing construction projects. In fact, a construction project is commonly to be successful when it is delivering within its budget and timeline. The planning and control process also explains the importance of accurate productivity estimate which first, estimating time and cost of construction activities that inevitably requires productivity estimates (Hinze, 1998), and second, integrated management of time and cost must involved productivity factor (Dawood and Molson, 1997). There are most previous studies focusing on defining factors influence productivity and measuring limited parts of activities at micro level to investigate the relationship between factors and productivity. A standard construction productivity metric system that more reliable is a critical element in construction productivity performance evaluation and improvement process. There need a tool to drive performance improvement through internal and external benchmarking. Park, et al., (2005) present that nowadays, demand from the construction industry on developing acceptable construction productivity metrics and standardized productivity data are the main issues to focus by the industry players and researches. Problem Statement As the main technical agencies for the Government of Malaysia, Public Work Department (PWD) or Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) entrusted to implement development projects throughout the country. It is the goal of JKR to ensure that the organization is run efficiently and effectively in order to achieve the vision, mission and objectives of the department. JKR is responsible to ensure that all the projects must be implemented well, complete on time, within the budget and provide quality products. In 9th Malaysian Plan (RMK 9), most of JKR projects cannot be deliver on time. For example, about 41% of projects in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur cannot be delivering on time which is most of it are due to wrongly estimate the duration of the construction activities in project scheduling. It is also regarding to lack of competency of JKR officers in reviewing and giving advice to contractors especially in preparing realistic projects work program. This problem can be categorized as serious m atter and give high impact to the overall performance of JKR due to unsatisfaction of client with JKRs reputation. As the biggest technical government agency, there should be a way to solve the problem so that it will improve JKR image and give high reputation to the clients. 1 Master Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 2 Supervisor, Professor Dr, Lecturer of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. There should be a standard productivity rate of each activity in the project in order to guide the contractor and the JKR supervision team to plan and implement the projects successfully. Therefore, the study on productivity rate of roof works for building project scheduling as an effort and starting point to develop the standard productivity rate of project activities for JKRs projects. In fact, this study is consistent with JKR strategies and action plan in achieving Effective Implementation of Malaysia 5 Years Plan especially to ensure that projects are implemented through appropriate implementation methodologies to meet customer needs and outcomes. One of the action plans stated in JKR Strategic Framework is to establish effective project performance tracking system which is JKR must analyzing all data that related to the project in order to improve JKR project implementation (JKR, 2007). The Objectives The aim of this study is to establish the productivity rate of roof works for JKR building projects scheduling. In order to achieve this, the following are the objectives of the study: To identify the factors that influence the productivity of roof works To establish the relationship between influence factors and productivity of roof works To develop a metrics of productivity rate for roof works Scope of Study There are certain limitations to be follow to ensure that this study is completed within the time frame given. Firstly, this study only takes into consideration on all projects which implement in central region of Peninsular Malaysia i.e. projects in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur and JKR Selangor. Second, the sample for this study is concentrate only in school projects which are the most of JKR projects implementation in 9th Malaysian Plan. Since standard design was using in school projects, the area of roof is fixed. This given the standardization to estimate the productivity rate for roofing works referring to the floor area involved. Roof trusses in construction projects can be classified in timber roof trusses, hot rolled roof trusses, cold form roof trusses and etc. The third limitation of this study is only taking into consideration of the cold form roof trusses because most of the school projects are using this type of trusses. In addition, JKR already has a list of 22 names of cold form roof trusses suppliers which their design have been reviewed and approved by the JKR Structure Expert Division. This list is for the JKR officers in state and district office to choose for their projects especially school projects. Forth, part of roof covering for this study only take into consideration one(1) types which is concrete roof tiles including insulations. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Recently, construction productivity is on a long-term slide and it is recognized as industry challenge. System, people, materials, information and energy must flow effectively and efficiently to produce its objective at high productivity to complete construction at lowest possible cost with possible shortest timeframe (Picard, 2005). Productivity is critically important in construction industry. Many researchers have expressed their concern over productivity in construction industry. Defining productivity is not a simple task to everybody. Different people will give different definition and understanding. Most of them agreed that marketable output was essentially the main measure used. Increased productivity was a leading concern to all Committee stakeholders such as users, contractors, and construction labor unions and led by the owner. The construction users emphasized the need of collecting data directly relevant to productivity improvement. The Committee was concluded that the front-line construction foreman/supervisor would be a reliable source of information. These informants would be asked to provide their judgment of the greatest impediments to a productive construction project (Tucker, 2003). Definition of productivity Within these several decades, many researchers have defined the productivity term in their studies in a number of ways. The term productivity has different meanings to different people. Many individuals automatically think only of labor unions when the term productivity is mentioned. Others associate capital expenditures with the term. Each of these interpretations is only partly correct (Adrian, 1993). Many researchers have attempted to define precisely the meaning of productivity and below are some of it that referred from their studies: Oglesby et al. (1989), presented that productivity can be defined as in-place value divided by inputs. Some researchers have defined it as works-hours divided by the equivalent quantity of work. In construction, productivity normally can be understood as work quantity divided by man-hours (or work-hours) consumed to accomplish the work. Productivity = Work Quantity Man-hours According to Dolman, Parham, Zheng, (2007), productivity is a measure in order to know how much output is produced per unit of input. Diewert Lawrence, (2006) presented that productivity can be defined as the level of economic output per unit of input and also per worker. Productivity is important to the wealth and well-being of a nation and give efforts to improve productivity occur at all levels of society. Thomas and Mathew, (1986) presented that no standardized productivity definition had been established in the construction industry. It is difficult to define a standard productivity measure because companies use their own systems which are not standardized. Association simply illustrates the productivity between an output and an input. The form has been widely used and existing in literature over the years in construction industry is; Productivity = Input/Output 2.3 Measurement of productivity There is controversy surrounding productivity that rooted in the differences in data collection. It is due to incorrect in assuming productivity measured uniformly and that all published productivity values have the same basis (Whiteside, 2006). Overall conception of productivity is difficult to express or to measure. It is sometimes expressed either in terms of output from labor or from services or from capital invested. These parts of expressions often do not give an accurate picture of the overall position. Although, there are measurements of some or all of the inputs and outputs of the industry but they still failed to combine these measurements into any satisfactory measure of efficiency. In fact, the ratio is easy to compute if the unit uses a single input to produce a single output (Choy, 2008). Although there are numbers of publications exist on construction productivity, there is no agreed upon definition of work activities nor a standard productivity measurement system. Most of researchers have concluded that it is difficult to obtain a standard method to measure construction labor productivity because of project complexity and unique characteristics of the construction projects (Oglesby et al. 1989). The uniqueness and non repetitive of operation in construction projects make it is difficult to develop a standard productivity definition and measure (Sweis, 2000). Factors influence productivity in construction Lim et al., (1995) has studied that factors affecting productivity in the construction industry in Singapore, indicated the problems affecting productivity were difficulty with recruitment of supervisors, difficulty with recruitment of workers, high rate of labor turnover, absenteeism from the work site and communication problems with the foreign workers. Olomolaiye et al., (1996) also studied that factors affecting productivity of craftsmen in Indonesia show the findings indicating craftsmen in this country spent 75 % of their time working productively. There are five specific productivity problems were identified such as lack of materials, rework, absenteeism, lack of equipment and tools. Kane et al., (cited in Herbsman et al., 1990) has classified the factors affecting construction productivity into two main groups which is technological factors and administrative factors. The technological factors involved those related to the design of the project and the administrative group factors are related to the management and construction of the project. Technological factors are comprises of sub-groups such as design factors, material factors and location factors. Administrative factors are comprises of sub-groups, such as construction methods and procedural factors, equipment factors, labor factors and social factors. Based on Heizer and Render (1990), they classified that factors influencing site productivity into 3 groups which are labour characteristic factors, project work conditions factors and non-productive activities. Olomolaiye et al., (1998) also stated that factors affecting construction productivity are rarely constant and may vary from country to country, fro m project to project and even within the same project which are depending on circumstances. They classified the factors influencing construction productivity into 2 categories which are external and internal. That means its representing those outside the control of the firms management and those originating within the firm. The external factors included the nature of the industry, construction client knowledge of construction procedure, weather and level of economic development. The internal factors included management, technology, labor and labor unions. Choi, (2007), stated that based on his finding, weather and poor communication prove to be the greatest impediment to roofing productivity, whereas the field workers pointed out that roof pitch, height and age of the roof along weather were major causes for lack of productivity in their job at site. He also stressed that roofing contractor generally not consider safety as a high priority in their business. Metrics an overview According to Melnyk et al., (2004), they stated that metrics are fulfill with the fundamental activities measuring (evaluating how we are doing), educating (communicating what is important and how we intend to deliver value to our customers) and directing (flagging potential problems by size of gap between the metrics and standards). Ideally, metrics are consistent with the way operation delivers value to the customers. Based on Melnyk et al., (2005), they presented that metric is a verifiable measure which consists of three elements such as; a) the specific measure, b) the standard (the numerical values that identifies the minimum threshold of performance, and c) the environment which the activity or person being measured operates. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In order to achieve the objectives, Figure 1.1 illustrated the schematic of research methodology for this study. Generally, it consists of four distinct phases, which are phase 1, phase 2, phase 3 and phase 4. 3.1 Phase 1 Selection of the topic has been done after gone through JKR listing of significance topics that can contribute to department as a whole. Topic of the study and proposed productivity rate of roof works is important to JKR building project scheduling to ensure all project can be completed on time with good quality. Based on previous researchers, there are several measurements on productivity rate in construction. This study will be focusing on the identification of factors that influencing roofing works productivity in JKR projects. From this scenario, the objectives of this study has been identified which are identifying of factors influence, the relationship and the establishing productivity rate of roof works. In such way, the focus of this topic must be in line with study limitation. In order to strengthen knowledge and ideas in this research area, extensive reading from journals and books must be thoroughly done. Besides that, preliminary site observation has been conducted to the selected site. Furthermore, the preliminary interview was conducted to get overview information about productivity rate of roof works. Due to time constraint, the observation has been done only for school projects. 3.2 Phase 2 A few samples of studies will be identifying purposely for running through the method of productivity measurement for getting accurate and practical data. Observation on quantity of roof works per man hours should be performing at site. During observation at site, interview with the expert is use as a tool to collect information data on how the productivity rate of roof works can be estimate and what are the factors influences the productivity rate Several interviewees will be selected based on qualification and experienced more than 10 years especially contractors and suppliers. Beside that, questionnaire will be distributed to technical person such as supervisor, engineer, manager and contractors to obtain their opinion in term of productivity rate of roof works. 3.3 Phase 3 In this stage, all the data from the questionnaires and interviews will compile. The data will be analyze accordingly and transform into productivity rate. Data analyzing, there will be a confirmation on what are the factors influence productivity rate of roof works will be getting through data analyzing, while standard productivity rate metrics of roof works will be producing after transform all the data into productivity rate by using appropriate statistical analysis. 3.4 Phase 4 Extract from data obtained in Phase 3, some proposal or recommendation will be highlighted in order to enhance a metrics of standard productivity rate for future building project scheduling. EXPECTED RESULTS The expected results of this study in next semester are: a) List of factors that influence the productivity rate for roof works, b) The critical factors affecting most to productivity rate for roofing works, c) A metrics of productivity rate for roof works as a standard and guideline for improving JKR projects scheduling. Selection of Topic Identify the Objective and Scope Phase 1 Preliminary Site Observation Literature Review Preliminary Interview Objective.(c) Objective.(b) Objective.(a) Case Studies Identify the factors influence Observation on quantity of works/ man hours DATA COLLECTION Interview with Experts Selecting several experts with experience more than 10 years Phase 2 DATA ANALYSIS Figure 1.1: Schematic of Research Methodology TENTATIVE SCHEDULE The following table is the tentative schedule for final project in next semester:
Thursday, September 19, 2019
NaÃ ¯vetÃ © in Flannery O'ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s Good Country People In "Good Country People," Flannery O'Connor skillfully presents a story from a third-person point of view, in which the protagonist, Joy-Hulga, believes that she is not one of those good country people. Joy is an intelligent and educated but emotionally troubled young woman, struggling to live in a farm environment deep in the countryside of the southeast United States, where she feels that she does not belong. Considering herself intellectually superior to the story's other characters, she experiences an epiphany that may lead her to reconsider her assumptions. Her experience marks a personal transition for her and constitutes the story's theme--the passage from naÃ ¯vetÃ © to knowledge. O'Connor crafts the story so that the plot does not actually begin until insight into the characters has been provided. The limited omniscience persona of the narrative voice alternates between Joy and her mother, Mrs. Hopewell. The exposition provides an understanding of how the characters have developed the personality traits they possess when the drama begins to take place, which is on a Friday evening during the Spring sometime during the mid-1950s. The exposition demonstrates how Joy develops the social and philosophical assumptions that deeply affect the way she sees herself and relates to others. A view into Joy-Hulga's past reveals why she has so much internal conflict and needs to empower herself through the constant judgment of others. What most strongly sets her apart from others is her prosthetic leg, which she has been wearing since her real leg was shot off at ten years of age in a hunting accident. Enduring teasing and other social hardships caused by her disability has led... ...she has also lost the foundation of her identity, her leg. She is faced with the realization that she has been naÃ ¯ve all along. In her pattern of being quick to make assumptions to build her own self esteem, Joy-Hulga has not used her intelligence in a socially beneficial way. The results of her shocking experience could be one of many, but considering Joy-Hulga's personality, she is likely to become even more defensive, hostile, and antisocial. She might become less willing to trust others, especially those who come across as "good country people." One would hope, however, that Joy will continue to recognize and admit her own naÃ ¯vetÃ © and to make fewer assumptions about the naÃ ¯vetÃ © of others. Work Cited O'Connor, Flannery. "Good Country People." Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Robert DiYanni. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw, 2002. 181-194.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Pericles Uplifting Speech Works Cited Not Included To stand in front of thousands; to speak the words aimed at persuading a crowd; to believe, and have them as well, a seemingly just cause - this is what a leader must do. Every era has its trouble, its own conflict, and along with it, its own leader who will do what he can to unite his followers. In 431 BC, Athens was in the midst of a war, and from that war came a speech, said by Pericles, that to this day, remains the model for any leader seeking to persuade his citizens and have them believe and act in favor of their land. Throughout United States' history, various leaders have used the format of his speech in efforts to reach their citizens. Many of the values and personal responsibilities that Pericles spoke of remain important in today's American society. Pericles stood in front of hundreds of Athenians the day he made his speech. He initially felt he was not worthy, that "the worth which had displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honors also by deeds" (28). However, he spoke that day, discussing first the nation's ancestors, paying homage to the forefather's of Athens. Pericles then moved on to speak of the fallen soldiers of the Peloponnesian War. He paid tribute to them, proclaiming their deaths were both purposeful and appreciated by Athens. Pericles finished by discussing the duties a citizen has to his land. This is the general outline of the "Funeral Speech." "I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they have the honor of the first mention on an occasion like the present" (28). Pericles gave the founding fathers of Athens the honor of being mentioned before all in his speech. He spoke of Athens' fa... ...to motivate his people to take an active role in society. Many of the thoughts and ideas stated in this piece have been used by other leaders throughout the world to stimulate interest within their societies as well. The Ancient Greek society, which Pericles was a part of, has had a large impact in the development of the United States. America's values are very similar to that of the Ancient Greece. They believe that freedom is an essential part of society and that the military can be a proper way to enforce this freedom. However, due to advancements within daily life, Americans are less politically active. Pericles would refer to these Americans as "useless," they obviously would not be rewarded in his society. Despite some differences, many of the values and personal responsibilities possessed in Ancient Greek society are similar to those in the US today.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Nixon era of American history will be considered one of the most tumultuous times the nation has faced. Elected in 1968, Nixon was faced with a nation divided by the War in Vietnam, racial tension and economic disparity. International tensions were no less; Communist China was a great unknown enemy and the Cold War with Russia seemed on the verge of turning into a Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ and potentially nuclear conflict at any moment. Six years later, following the infamous break-in at the Watergate Hotel and facing impeachment, Richard M. Nixon delivered his resignation speech on August 8, 1974.His speech is clearly a primary document necessary for understanding Nixon and his perspective on himself as well as on the Watergate fiasco. Obviously Nixon did not have a generous amount of time to prepare the speech, such as he would have with a typi-cal State of the Union address. It is also likely he wished, in retrospect, to have more time to craft a finer product. Nonetheless, he realize d the magnitude and uniqueness of the document, although at the time he probably did not realize the candid insight into his atti-tude and personality that it would provide.Facing impeachment as well as the possibility of criminal charges, it is likely Nix-on strongly felt the legal implications of any admissions he would make. Whether inten-tional or not, his speech gave strength to his detractors who considered him the deceitful Ã¢â¬Å"Tricky DickÃ¢â¬ . Few if any of his supporters, much less detractors, expected him to shoul-der any blame for the illegal activities and cover-ups. The closest he could come to an admission of wrong-doing carried a self-serving caveat: Ã¢â¬Å"I regret deeply any injuries that may have been done in the course of the events that led to this decision.I would say only that if some of my judgments were wrong, and some were wrong, they were made in what I believed at the time to be the best interest of the nation. Ã¢â¬ Later revelations brought about through the White House Tapes would indicate Mr. Nixon had other interests, in-cluding his own political survival, in mind as well. Nixon took the approach of being a wounded warrior giving up a just cause Ã¢â¬Å"for the good of the countryÃ¢â¬ .He does not refer to the act or use Ã¢â¬Å"impeachmentÃ¢â¬ ; rather, he calls it Ã¢â¬Å"the constitutional processÃ¢â¬ and although he Ã¢â¬Å"felt stronglyÃ¢â¬ to see it through, he incongruously declared Ã¢â¬Å"to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliber-ately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future. Ã¢â¬ He claims he has Ã¢â¬Å"never been a quitterÃ¢â¬ and had always Ã¢â¬Å"taken heartÃ¢â¬ in Theodore Roose-veltÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"man in the arenaÃ¢â¬ speech, and quotes it in its entirety. It would be nothing short of delightful to hear Teddy RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s response.He claims he Ã¢â¬Å"preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony it wou ld have involvedÃ¢â¬ and despite his family urging him onward, he reluctantly resigns because Ã¢â¬Å"the interests of the nation must always come before any personal considera-tions. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, he believes he can take credit for making the nation better: Ã¢â¬Å"I hope I will have hastened the start of that process of healing which is so desperately needed in America. Ã¢â¬ In other words, America has me to thank for removing the noose around the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s neck which I so carefully knotted.Nixon was known as a man who often forgot his friends but never forgot an ene-my. Therefore it was pleasant to see his reformation: Ã¢â¬Å"And to those who have not felt able to give me your support, let me say I leave with no bitterness toward those who have op-posed me, because all of us, in the final analysis, have been concerned with the good of the country, however our judgments might differ. Ã¢â¬ Once again, later revelations would indicate Nixon was beyond bitternes s, and fully capable of destroying any real or poten-tial enemy, if it was in his power to do so without accountability.In retrospect, after thirty-plus years, the document really is, in a sense, Richard Nixon. A career politician, he was indeed a fighter from his days in Congress to facing off with Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the U. N. while EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s Vice President. As president he shut down a ghastly war he inherited in Vietnam and took it upon himself to open relations with China and strengthen relations with the Arab states. Yet there was Tricky Dick, craw-fishing to the nation, claiming Ã¢â¬Å"some judgments were wrongÃ¢â¬ , but you know, I did it because I had the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s interests at heart.Truly a man of complexity and contradictions, his Ã¢â¬Å"rehabilitationÃ¢â¬ with the American public took years, and he never re-ally reached the Ã¢â¬Å"senior statesmenÃ¢â¬ rank more easily carried by Jimmie Carter and even Gerald Ford. No doubt anyone in his po sition would like to go back and redo such a unique and pivotal document. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s political arena even a finger-wagging Ã¢â¬Å"I did not have relations with that womanÃ¢â¬ Clinton, himself a veteran of Ã¢â¬Å"the constitutional processÃ¢â¬ can find rapid Ã¢â¬Å"rehabilitationÃ¢â¬ . One wonders whether some judicious and non-exculpatory editing on NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s part would have hastened his recovery.Ending his presidency as no predecessor had, Nixon found it necessary to use al-most half of his address to extol the virtues and accomplishments of his presidency. Sad-ly, it sounds hollow, as Ã¢â¬Å"if no one else will tell you I left the world a better place, than I willÃ¢â¬ . In essence, it is a very sad document indeed, and Nixon supporters at the time felt the sting of humiliation and the disgrace of a remarkable hero while his opponents could point to his final words as president as a fitting memento of a failed and bitter man. His final speech helped place him in history in a way he never could have imagined.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Although the need for government to have leadership that provides direction is universal among states, the form that the government leadership assumes varies. Government structure varies significantly between the United States and Great Britain, despite that each is a democracy and share a common history. In fact, the common history of the United States and Great Britain suggests reasons to explain the broad differences between the governments of each respective state. In the wake of the American Revolution, the people of the United States rejected the forms and institutions, most notably a monarchy and Parliament, of British government as well as British sovereignty. Possessing a democratic presidential government, the United States has two separately elected agencies of government. The executive and legislative branches of the United States, the President and Congress, respectively, both derive their power from the people, whereas in Great Britain only the legislative branch, Parliament, derives its power from the people, as the executive is elected by Members of Parliament, thus effectively combining both branches within a single institution. The Parliamentary system in Great Britain and the Presidential system in the United States both have histories marked by an absence of abject failure, yet neither system can be considered truly perfect. Consequently, the analyst cannot conclude that either system is better; rather, he must recognize that there are merits and faults in both systems. The Parliamentary system tends to legislate efficiently, whereas a presidential system tends toward gridlock. However, the presidential system grants both elected representatives and citizens greater influence in government. The Parliamentary system tends to favor Prime Ministers who have much experience, whereas the Presidential system favors Presidents who are responsive to the general will of the people. Also every week the British prime minister appears before the House of Commons and must answer questions put to him or her by the members of Parliament. Sometimes it is suggested that the president of the United States should be subject to similar questioning by members of Congress, as a way of encouraging closer interaction between president and Congress. If the president did so, however, it would be his or her choice; the president is elected directly by the people and is answerable to the voters rather than the legislature. Whereas the prime minister has no choice because he or she is a member of Parliament and is directly accountable to that body. Herein lies a very basic difference between the presidential system of government as it exists in the United States and the parliamentary system that has evolved in Great Britain. Another point is that the framers of the U.S. Constitution adopted the principle first enunciated by the Baron de Montesquieu of separation of powers. They carefully spelled out the independence of the three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. At the same time, however, they provided for a system in which some powers should be shared: Congress may pass laws, but the president can veto them; the president nominates certain public officials, but Congress must approve the appointments; and laws passed by Congress as well as executive actions are subject to judicial review. Thus the separation of powers is offset by what are sometimes called checks and balances. In a parliamentary system, by contrast, the legislature holds supreme power. The prime minister is chosen by members of the legislature (Parliament) from among their own number and in practice is the leader of the majority party in the legislature. The cabinet members must also belong to the legislature, where they are subject to the same kind of questioning that the prime minister experiences. If the prime minister loses the support of the majority in the legislature on a significant vote, he or she must resign, and elections are called immediately. Thus, whereas in the United States, elections are held at fixed intervals, in Britain and other parliamentary countries, they may occur at any time, the only restriction being (inÃ Britain) that they must be held at least once every five years. In Conclusion, the governments of Great Britain and the United States of America have many differences, they are, at the core, provides leadership and direction to their nation.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Chapter 1 Introduction to the Study Chapter 1 covers five parts: (1) Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem, (3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and (5) Delimitation of the Study Part 1, Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, presents the rationale for the choice of the problem. Part 2, Statement of the Problem, describes the major and specific questions that this study will seek to answer. Part 3, Significance of the Study, cites the benefits that could be derived from the findings of the study.Part 4, Definition of Terms, presents the conceptual and operational definitions of the key terms that will be used in the study. Part 5, Delimitation of the Study, specifies the scope of the study with regards to the variables, the participants, and the instruments that will be used to gather data. Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study Ã¢â¬Å"The family is the strongest unit of society, demanding the deepest loyalties of the individual and coloring all social activity with its own set of demands. Ã¢â¬ Jean Grossholtz (1964, 86-87) In the Third World, the elite family has long been a leading actor in the unfolding of the national pageant.More, specifically in the Philippines, elite families can be seen as both object and subject of history, shaping and being shaped by the processes of change. These families have provided a strong element of continuity to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and political history over the century past (McCoy 1994, 1). In 1950s Robert Fox (1959, 6) described the Philippines as Ã¢â¬Å"an anarchy of families,Ã¢â¬ in which the Philippine political parties usually have acted as coalitions of powerful families. The rise of powerful political families was attributed to the RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence as a weak, postcolonial state (McCoy 1994, 10-11).According to McCoy (1994, 13), after Spain and United States colonial rule, the Republic thus developed as a state with both substantial economic resources and weak bureaucratic capacity. It is this paradoxical pairing of wealth and weakness that opened the state to predatory rent seeking by politicians. Based on MigdalÃ¢â¬â¢s research (1988, 9) on Third World politics, he finds that the source of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknessÃ¢â¬âthe social organizations such as Ã¢â¬Å"families, clansÃ¢â¬ ¦tribes, patron-client dyadsÃ¢â¬ continue to act as competing sources of authority.Despite the apparent influence and significant factor of the family upon wider society and its politics, most historians, both Filipino and foreign, have ignored this problem. According to Schneider (1969, 109-110), instead of studying and analyzing the Philippine political history through the paradigm of elite families, they have generally treated Philippine past and politics solely through as an interaction of state, private institutions, and popular movements.Even social scientists, despite an obligatory bow in the di rection of the family, have generally failed to incorporate substantive analysis of its dynamics into rendering of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s social and political processes. Social science as often happens in the study of the Philippines thus diverges from social reality, according to Alfred W. McCoy (1994, 1). At present, there is still a lacking scholarly analysis of either individual Filipino families or family-based oligarchies.While other Southeast Asian societies have produced some useful biographies and autobiographies, the Southeast Asian regions still have little nondynastic family history that can serve as a model for future Philippine research (McCoy 1994, 2). One of the provinces in the Philippines that have no study about family-based politics is Aklan. The Province of Aklan is located in the Northeast portion of Panay Island. It was the oldest province in the Philippines organized in 1213 by settlers from Borneo as the Ã¢â¬Å"Minuro it Akean. In 1565 Miguel Lopez de Legaspi landed in Aklan, and divided the Ã¢â¬Å"Minuro it AkeanÃ¢â¬ five encomiendas which he distributed among his farming followers. Along with political change, the Spaniards introduced Christianity. In 1716, the area of the Ã¢â¬Å"Minuro it AkeanÃ¢â¬ was designated as a province but it was called Capiz. After the Americans took the country from Spain in 1901, Don Natalio B. Acevedo, Aklan delegation head, presented the first memorial for the separation of Aklan from Capiz to the Junta Magna headed by Commissioner Dean C. Worcester.For the same purpose, the Aklanons in Congress filed numerous bills, including Urquiola-Alba bill in 1920, the Laserna-Suner bills in 1925 and 1930, and the Tumbokon bill in 1934. Aklan finally became an independent province when President Magsaysay signed into law the Republic Act 1414 on April 25, 1956. This was made through the efforts of Congressman Godofredo P. Ramos, and then the province was inaugurated on November 8, 1956. (Aklan Directory 2011, http://www. aklandirectory. com/aklan/, ret. 9/16/2012) Political families thrive in all but one province in the Philippines.From Batanes to Tawi-tawi, with the exception of Kalinga, members of political families hold public posts, both elective and appointive. GMA News Research has identified at least 219 political families that dominate the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political landscape. (2011, http;//www. gmanetwork. com, ret 9/30/2012) Like these provinces, AklanÃ¢â¬â¢s history is also filled with family-based politics. In order to better understand the present political situations, studying the political history of Aklan in the lens of the familial perspective can led to discover new dimensions in our national history.The history of a political family in a particular province can be a microcosm of the kind of politics that happens in the Philippines. Thus, this study offers this perspective and understanding. Statement of the Problem This study is conducted to find out the political hi story of Aklan, through the case study in historical method of a selected political family in the province. Unlike Latin America, much more of the Philippine social research treated the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political history through its formal institutional structures rather than on the importance of the family and family history.However, it can be seen that in the works of several theorists and researchers like Wolf, Grossholtz, Kuznesof, Freyre, and Schneider, political families in the Philippines and around the world are found to have a more dominant force in shaping the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s history including political, social, and economic institutions. Specifically, this study will seek to answer the following questions: 1. How the political family in Aklan emerged? 2. How do they maintain their influence in the province? 3. What are the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s political practices to retain power? Significance of the StudyThis qualitative research may be significant primarily to historians in analyzing the centrality of family-based politics to many periods and problems in the Philippine history. For social scientists, this study will help them delve the roles of family as a primary unit of political organization; and will serve as a model for future Philippine research. For political science students, the findings of this study will help them understand the influence of political families on the course of Philippine politics. This study will also help politicians to formulate political strategies and practices based on the history of a political family.Lastly, this study can be added as a significant literature on the political history of Aklan; as well as, it can provide meaningful information for other related literatures. Definition of terms For the purpose of achieving clarity of meaning and interpretation, the following terms were defined. The Case study approach as an empirical inquiry investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context. (Yin 1984, 24) The Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. (2012, http://en. ikipedia. org/w/index. php, ret. 9/30/2012) AÃ political familyÃ is aÃ familyÃ in which several members are involved inÃ politics, particularlyÃ electoral politics. Members may be related by blood or marriage; often severalÃ generationsÃ or multipleÃ siblingsÃ may be involved. (2012, http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php, ret. 9/30/2012) The Province of AklanÃ is located in the Northeast portion of Panay Island, and has a total land area of 1, 817. 9 km? which is composed of 17 municipalities. It has a total population of 495, 122 (NSO 2007 census), and Kalibo is the capital town. (Aklan DirectoryÃ 2011, http://www. aklandirectory. om/aklan/, ret. 9/30/2012) Delimitation of the Study This study will be conducted during the first semester of the school year 2012-2013 until the second semester of the school year 2013-2014. This will be conducted among a purposively selected political family in the Province of Aklan. The case study in historical method will be used in this study to investigate the political history of the Province of Aklan. The researchers in order to collect detailed data needed in this study will employ participant observations, key informant interviews, directly interview the participants, and examine relevant records, documents, and reports.Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Chapter 2 includes previous studies on political families which are divided into the International Context, the Philippine Context, and the Visayan Context. The International Context includes the previous studies on family-based politics and the history of elite political families around the world. The Philippine Context includes studies about the Filipino family and Philippines as a weak, postcolonial state that led to the em ergence of political families. The Visayan Context includes case studies of two political families in the Visayas Ã¢â¬â the Lopez family and the Osmena family.Political Families The International Context In almost any country in the world, there are always leading political elite families that exist. A significant number of these families can be traced in United States, Brazil, and Mexico. In the United States, the well-known Adams Family of Massachusetts has been the subject of much autobiographical and biographical research. Meanwhile, the Pessoa family is popular as leading actors in Brazilian politics, and the Sanchez-NavarrosÃ¢â¬â¢ family of Mexico is known for both wealth and power.For several decades, Latin American historians have used detailed microstudies of elite families to discover new dimensions in their national histories. As Gilberto Freyre (1964, 155 and 161), a pioneer in this field, once argued, anyone studying a peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s past will find that historical constants are more significant than ostensibly heroic episodes and will discover that what happens within the family is far more important than often-cited events in presidential mansions, in parliaments and large factories. Applying this perspective toBrazil, Freyre found that BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s most distinctive elite families emerged in the sugar districts of the northeast during the sixteenth century- fusing land, sugar, and slaves to become patriarchs of Ã¢â¬Å"untrammelled powerÃ¢â¬ or unlimited power and Ã¢â¬Å"total fiatÃ¢â¬ or absolute decree. Arguing that the patriarchal family still exerts a subtle influence on the Ã¢â¬Å"the ethos of contemporary Brazilians,Ã¢â¬ Freyre cites the case of President Epitacio Pessoa who in the early decades of this century was known as Ã¢â¬Å"Tio PitaÃ¢â¬ (Uncle Pita) in recognition of his penchant for appointing male relations to key government posts.Another historian, Linda Lewin (1979, 263) has produced some of the most refined h istoriographic reflections on the connection between familial and national history in her writing on the Pessoa family of Paraiba State in Brazil. By the late 1970s the field of family history was so well developed in Latin America that another Brazilian historian Linda Lewin (1979, 263) stated that the Ã¢â¬Å"family-basedÃ¢â¬ approach to the political history as a Ã¢â¬Å"commonplace in Brazilian history. Many historians had already employed the family historiography as an approach in discovering different dimensions of Brazilian political history thus making it popular around Latin America. Similarly, an essay by Felstiner (1976, 58) on the role of kinship politics in ChileÃ¢â¬â¢s independence movement began with the words Ã¢â¬Å"the importance of the family in Latin America goes unquestioned. Ã¢â¬ Many historical documents show that the leading elite families in Chile, such as the OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins family, started the movements for independence against the Spanish colonizer s.A decade later, Latin American historians were still unanimous in their belief that the elite family played a uniquely important political role in their region. Introducing eight essays, Elizabeth Kuznesof and Robert Oppenheimer (1985, 215) observed that the family in Latin America is found to have been a more central and active force in shaping political, social, and economic institutions of the area than was true in Europe or United States. Indeed, they found that institutions in Latin America society make much more social sense, particularly in the nineteenth century, if viewed through the lens of family relationships.As democracy flourished in the young Latin America, elite families engaged in the political arena and started to stabilize political institutions, such as the electoral system and civil society. Charles H. Harris, a historian, (1975, 314) stated that the Sanchez-NavarrosÃ¢â¬â¢ family is one of the oldest and most influential families of Spanish descent in Mexico since 1577. The Sanchez Navarro family's Ã¢â¬Å"latifundioÃ¢â¬ or an estate composed of two or more haciendasÃ is composed of seventeen haciendas and covers more than 16. 5 million acresÃ¢â¬âthe size of West Virginia.It is said to be the largestÃ Ã¢â¬Å"latifundioÃ¢â¬ ever to have existed, not only in Mexico but also in all of Latin America. In HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ discussion of the acquisition of land, the technology of ranching, labor problems, and production on the Sanchez Navarro estate, and of the family's involvement in commerce and politics, he finds that the development of theÃ Ã¢â¬Å"latifundioÃ¢â¬ Ã was only one aspect in the Sanchez Navarros' rise to power. He also emphasizes the great importance of the Sanchez Navarros' widespread network of family connections in their commercial and political activities.Reflecting their rich historical traditions, America have also produced impressive family histories. Political families are not a new concept in the United States. The Adams family of Massachusetts, for example, has been the subject of autobiographical and biographical research. (Musto 1981, 40-58) TheÃ Adams political familyÃ is one of the most prominent political families in United States history, originating in Massachusetts and having a profound impact on the development of the nation's path from the 18th century and onwards.The family has produced numerous important New England politicians as well as two Presidents Ã¢â¬â John Adams (1797-1801) and George Adams (1851-1861) but also several ambassadors and literary figures. The children and grandchildren of the Adams family were raised with the idea that public service was expected of you. (2011, http://seattletimes. com/html/nationworld/2004164299_dynasty05. html, ret. 10/10/2012) Similarly, like other developed and developing countries around the globe, the history of Philippines is also shaped by elite families that play leading roles in the control and influence on insti tutions of the government.The Philippine Context The political families are the actors that have played in the political landscape of the Philippines and have shaped the outcome of the past and are engaged in shaping the future of the Philippines. The Philippine history should not only be viewed as the interaction of different institution of society such as the state, civil societies, the Roman Catholic Church, and the different popular movements. Instead, we should also dissect its political history through the paradigm of elite families.The importance of family-society relationship in the Philippines based on Jean GrossholtzÃ¢â¬â¢s description (1964, 86-870, Ã¢â¬Å"the strongest unit of society demanding the deepest loyalties of the individual and coloring all social activity with its own set of demands. Ã¢â¬ He then remarked that the communal values of family are often in conflict with the impersonal values of the institutions of the larger society. Many Filipino historians have been critical, and they generally disregarded the leading families and provincial elites in the Philippines on ideological grounds.Nationalistic historians have dismissed the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s elites for being traitors and conformists to the colonizers. Teodoro Agoncillo (1960, 644-645), one the most famous historian in Philippine history, remarked that the ilustrados have betrayed the revolution. Renato Constantino (1975, 232), a contemporary of Agoncillo, called the same elites as collaborators. According to the founder of the Communist Party of the Philippines, Jose Maria Sison, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s elites were a small alien element Ã¢â¬â either rural feudal landholders or urban, comprador bourgeoisie as cited by Guerrero (1979, 234-249).According to McCoy (1994, 4), most Filipino biographies, the potential building blocks for elite-family studies, are more hagiography (idolizing biography) than history. Many of these biographies are funded by the family or the person that is the subject of these biographies. Biographers write as if death has cleansed what misdeeds their subject has done in society. Such accounts, McCoy added, are exoneration from the charges of their enemies, silence about their cunning or corruptions, and a celebration of their contribution to the nation.McCoy commented that the weak state and powerful political oligarchies have combined to make a familial perspective on national history relevant. The Philippines has a long history of strong families assuring social survival when the nation-state is weak. In the 20th century, the state has collapsed, partially or wholly, at least four times in the midst of war and revolution. After independence in 1946, moreover, the Philippine central government lost control over the countryside to regional politicians, some so powerful that they become known as warlords.In Philippine politics a family name is a valuable asset. A good name translates strongly to an advantage in polling. Believing that an established name carries cachet and qualification, parties often favor a promising scion of an old line when selecting candidates. Many Filipino politicians use their kinship networks (McCoy 1993, 10), to assure their ascension to power. A kinship network is a working coalition drawn from a larger group related by blood, marriage, and ritual.As elite families bring such a flexible kinship ties into the political arena, elections often assume a kaleidoscopic complexity of coalition and conflict, making Filipino politics appear volatile. It has a unique capacity to create informal political team that assigns specialized roles to its members, thereby maximizing coordination and influence. The Visayan Context Most of the well-known political families in the Philippines have political roots in their home provinces. Whether in the provinces of Luzon, Visayas, or Mindanao, there would always be certain political families that would dominate the political arena.The Lopez Family In A lfred McCoyÃ¢â¬â¢s essay (1994, 429-517) Ã¢â¬Å"Rent-Seeking Families and the Philippine State: A History of the Lopez FamilyÃ¢â¬ illustrates the close connection between state power and the private wealth by elite families in the Philippines. He says that in the Philippine setting, the study of a single rent-seeking family may be the most appropriate way of bridging the gap between western economic theory and the Filipino familial paradigm. Among the leading Filipino families, the Lopezes are, by virtue of their history, well suited for such a case study.Seeking knowledge of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s origins and early character, McCoyÃ¢â¬â¢s essay begins in the 1870s when the Lopezes enter the historical record as pioneer sugar planters on the plantation frontier of Negros Island. But early on 1850s, they already first appeared to be local merchants. Basilio Lopez served as one of JaroÃ¢â¬â¢s cabeza-de barangay and later as a gobernadorcillo. The growth of their political and co mmercial influence paralleled the emergence of national political elite (McCoy 1994, 440-441).While the second generation consolidated property and position within a regional planter elite, their children made a successful transition to sugar milling and commerce during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. In the five generations of the Lopezes it has a history of both skillful male and female entrepreneurs and politicians (McCoy 1994, 441-444). However, among the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s twenty-six hundred descendants, it was Eugenio and Fernando Lopez, who initially raised the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s position to first rank of national prominence. Backed by EugenioÃ¢â¬â¢s growing wealth, Fernando Lopez was appointed as a mayor of Iloilo City for two years in September 1945.He quickly secured overall leadership of the province, relegating Jose Zulueta, his ally, to the position of perennial challenger. His career as provincial politician involved the using violence to advance their interests. In 1946 the Lopezes sh ifted their capital and residence to Manila. They traded in influence and avoided violence. No longer rooted in the land or dependent upon the social power of the provinces, the Lopezes came to depend upon the state, through the medium of presidency, for the financial and regulatory concessions that would assure the prosperity of their corporations.With the Lopez brothersÃ¢â¬â¢ relations with a succession of Philippine presidents, they prospered under the administration of their allies from their patron Quezon, Sergio Osme? a, Elpidio Quirino, and Manuel Roxas. In 1947, he was elected to the Senate. In 1965, the presidential candidate was Ferdinand Marcos. Fernando Lopez, despite his presidential aspirations, became Marcos' vice-presidential running mate, creating a ticket that married private wealth to populist appeal. The Lopez alliance with Marcos was a strategic blunder born of tactical necessity.To insure the defeat of incumbent President Macapagal, the Lopezes had felt compe lled to ally themselves with Marcos. Eugenio Lopez used his money, media, and machine to make Marcos president in 1965 elections. Not long after, Eugenio Lopez launched a major expansion and diversification program at Meralco. Again, with the Lopez support Marcos was reelected in 1969. In January 1971, however, a break occurred, which erupted into what may be the most public and vitriolic split in the Philippine political history.According to Marcos, the Lopezes were demanding concessions to advance their interests. According to the Lopezes, Marcos was demanding shares in their family corporations. Using the Manila Chronicle, the Lopezes began an attack, publishing exposes of graft within the administration. When a delegation of Tondo workers called upon the president at the battleÃ¢â¬â¢s peak, Marcos vowed: Ã¢â¬Å"we will crush the Lopez oligarchy to pieces. Ã¢â¬ After suffering five months of media criticism, Marcos finally sued for peace by paying a call on Eugenio at his Pa ranaque residence (McCoy 1994, 508).Sixteen months later in MarcosÃ¢â¬â¢s declaration of martial law, the Lopez family became the main target of his Ã¢â¬Å"revolution from above. Ã¢â¬ He used the same licensing powers that had built the Lopez wealth to destroy the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortune and transfer their assets to a new economic elite composed of his own kin. Paul Hutchcroft (1991, 414-450), a political scientist said that, Ã¢â¬Å"using the state and its army, Marcos became the first president since Quezon to reduce the autonomy of provincial elites.He employed economic regulations, backed by threat of force, to pursue the main aim of his rule-changing the composition of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic elite. In Negros Occidental, for example, Marcos created a new stratum of supralocal leaders whom he financed with rents. On July 1975, Eugenio Lopez died of cancer in San Francisco while Geny Lopez remained in prison on capital charges. In the end, Marcos did not destroy the Lop ez familyÃ¢â¬â¢s accumulated legitimacy, contacts, and skills (McCoy 1994, 518). MarcosÃ¢â¬â¢s fall from power in 1986 heralded the restoration of the Lopez fortunes.In the restoration of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes under President Aquino, it is argued that Eugenio Lopez succeeded in handing down enough of his capital and skills to perpetuate his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s position within the national economic elite. In his essay, McCoy (1994, 431) explains the role of rents for it has a good deal about the weakness of the Philippines and the corresponding strength of Filipino political families. As defined by James Buchanan (1980, 7-8) rents appear when the state uses regulation to restrict Ã¢â¬Å"freedom of entryÃ¢â¬ into the market.If these restrictions create a monopoly, the economic consequences are decidedly negativeÃ¢â¬âslowing growth and enriching a few favoured entrepreneurs. Competition for such monopolies, a political process called Ã¢â¬Å"rent-seeking,Ã¢â¬ can produce intense conflict. Anne Krueger (1980, 52-57) has argued that in many Third World countries rents are Ã¢â¬Å"pervasive facts of life. Ã¢â¬ In India such restricted economic activity accounted for 7. 3% of their national income in 1964, while in Turkey rents from import licenses alone represented about 15 percent of the gross national product in 1968.In the Philippines, political economists have applied this theory to explain how the PalaceÃ¢â¬â¢s rent-seeking courtiers after Marcos era used state power to plunder the country. Manuel Montes (1989, 84-148), a Filipino economist, argues that Ã¢â¬Å"the economic structure of the country stimulates, encourages, and provides the greatest rewards to Ã¢â¬Ërent-seekingÃ¢â¬â¢ activities. Ã¢â¬ As evidence for this provocative reconceptualization of rent-seeking, Montes offers his readers a superficial catalogue of businessmen who have served regimes from Quezon to Marcos. In the presidency of Manuel Roxas,Ã¢â¬ says Montes in a t ypical passage, Ã¢â¬Å"Soriano, Eugenio LopezÃ¢â¬ ¦ and Jose Yulo were influential businessmen. Ã¢â¬ The story of Eugenio Lopez illustrates that for over thirty years, he had used presidential patronage to secure subsidized government financing and dominate state-regulated industries, thereby amassing the largest private fortune in the Philippines (McCoy 1993, 429-430). In the Philippines, the succession of presidents has played partisan politics with the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s economic powers, awarding loans and creating rents to reward the political brokers who assured their election.Underlying the executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s partisan use of state power are political elites who fuse public office with private business. For the elites to justify the high risk of campaign investments, public office must promise extraordinary rewards. More than any other entrepreneur of the Republican era, Eugenio Lopez, Sr. , mastered the logic of political investment. The Lopez brothers, being the most successf ul rent-seekers, formed corporate conglomerates that relied in some way upon the state licenses.Since all of their major corporations were in some sense due to rent system, their commercial success involved a commingling of business and politics. Such a system leaves an ambiguous legacy (McCoy 1993, 435-437). Not only in Western Visayas had leading political families emerged as national actors but also a significant number are found in Central Visayas. The Osmena Family Another political family that has long dominated the political landscape of the Philippines for many years since the beginning of the 20th century is the Osmena family of Cebu.The Osmenas rose to prominence when Sergio Osmena, Sr. was elected governor of the Province of Cebu and then as Speaker of the Philippine National Assembly during the American colonial period. He was eclipsed only in power by the political maneuverings that Quezon made to overpowering him in the National Assembly and capturing the post as the P resident of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935. After World War II, Sergio Osmena, Sr. went back to the Philippines as President to establish his control as head of the government in the Philippine archipelago.OsmenaÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Serging, later became the governor of Cebu and candidate for the Presidency in the 1969 election against Ferdinand Marcos. The present generation of Osmenas is still politically active in Cebu and in national politics. The Osmenas dominated the political world of Cebu not through the usual guns, goons, and gold that are usually used by their political rival like the Sottos, Cuencas,and Duranos. The Osmenas dominated the provincial politics of Cebu because they are highly skilled in the craft of politics. (Resil, 1993, p. 316) They are wealthy, but their wealth do not equate for their capacity to coerce people to vote for them.They use their wealth skillfully, by using it for political gains. They are not as rich as their opponents who have huge haciendas but they show their prowess as politicians during elections. Elections are an exercise deeply inscribed in the Filipino political imagination. Theoretically, an election provides the occasion for society to take cognizance to itself. This is the time when citizens are most self-conscious, a season of stock-taking, when voters reflect on their collective state and history and make choices about leaders, policies, and Ã¢â¬Å"futuresÃ¢â¬ .The Ã¢â¬Å"democratic spaceÃ¢â¬ or surface that allows an unlimited range for diverse values and commitments is most visible in incumbents submitting themselves for popular judgement and candidates presenting ideas of government, in the public exchange of contrary views, and, finally, in the voter weighing his or her options and casting a ballot in the ritualÃ¢â¬â¢s inner sanctum, the polling booth. (Mojares 1993, 319) The reality of Philippine politics is not tidy. Intensive exploitation of mass media and propaganda techniques crowd public spa ce during the electoral season.There are restrictions of thought and action; however, beneath the diversity and dynamism of election, these restrictions, according to Mojares (1993, 319), are an underdeveloped party system, elite dominance and ideological sameness of candidates, exclusion of those who fail to muster the considerable resources needed to mount a campaign, the subordination of issues to particularistic concerns, elaborate forms of terrorism and fraud, and the cultural baggage of traditional values of power and dependence.Elections, therefore, do not constitute a free field but are in fact, an arena in which the existing limits on participation are further exercised and enforced. In Philippine elections we have a case in which the elite or dominant class usually constructs political reality for citizens. This process may be seen in the centrality accorded to the election itself as field of action and a channel for effecting political change. In elections, obeisance is r endered to the Ã¢â¬Å"stateÃ¢â¬ of the people are constituted or reconstituted as its Ã¢â¬Å"subjectsÃ¢â¬ . In effect, the periodic holding of elections nourishes and renews the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s system.In the process, it also tends to reify the existing system and deemphasize other areas of political work such as mass organizing, interest-group lobbying, and Ã¢â¬Å"armed struggle. Ã¢â¬ (Mojares 1993, 320) Elections, by their very nature, provide us with a concentrated expression of the process of ideological domination. This is one area in which Osmena phenomenon is important since the Osmena have built their dominance less on sheer economic power (though the use of such power was basic in their rise) or physical repression (though they were not innocent of its methods) than on their mastery of the instrumental aspects of electoral power building.From this they draw their distinctive character as Filipino kingpins. Skillful management of ideological practices takes precede nce over reliance on superior economic leverage (as in the case of the Lopez family), a system of traditional patronage (as in the Durano Family), a mix of religion and militarism (as in Ali Dimaporo), or systematic electoral fraud as what the Marcoses did. The matter of ideology both as the world of social meanings and the politicianÃ¢â¬â¢s stance in this world is germane to achieving an understanding of the Osmenas.In electoral contest in Cebu, public discourse has been dominated by conservative politicians. Political speech gravitates around the two poles of personality and issues. The Osmena discourse skillfully combines both personality and issues. Personality is the low mode of discourse and encompasses the verbal abuse, muckraking, vulgar humor, and gossip. Issue is the high mode, consisting of the presentation of government platforms or the qualifications and social ideas of candidates. It is not however a systematic exposition of ideology but a minimalist statement of gen eral and abstract principles and a isting of specific projects. Public discourse on politics is neither wholly open nor free. Control of public channels of communication, elite construction of tradition, selective deployment of languages, and the limits of Philippine language situation-in concert with material conditions that sustain attitudes of political subjection- prosper ideological domination. The Osmenas are masters in the management of politics and are, in fact, the ones who inaugurated in Cebu politics the systematic use of modern mass media for electoral purposes.They are skilful in the selection of messages and the manipulation of symbols so effective in Philippine electoral politics, particularly in the context of the structurally undeveloped urbanism of Cebu. Theirs is an ideology of Ã¢â¬Å"developmentalismÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"modernityÃ¢â¬ with its promise of rational management, bureaucratic efficiency and technocratic expertise in the design and execution of public projects. It is a minimalist ideology, however, in its loose aggregation of generalities and particularities and in its avoidance of a systematic critique of structures of social and economic domination.The Osmenas have put their considerable entrepreneurial and organizational skills to good use in their electoral campaigns such as in managing finances, contracting a quality staff for media packaging and opinion surveys, and running an efficient campaign organization. They have a fund of political experience, an organizational network built up through many elections, the support of big business and the persuasive reputation of Ã¢â¬Å"winners. Ã¢â¬ The Osmenas have defined their electoral campaigns in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"crusadesÃ¢â¬ that use primordial symbols of democracy, autonomy, and progress.More adept than their opponents in ceasing the ideological high ground, the Osmenas have defined political reality in advantageous terms. They appeal to both the past and the future, on o ne hand by resurrecting selective images of the past, and on the other hand, by evoking visions of a modern, progressive future in their campaign speeches. Underlying, the Osmena phenomenon is a practice of conservative politics, one that restricts the distribution of power and constructs the politics as pulitika.According to Reynaldo Ileto (1984, 10), pulitika is the perception of politics as a process of bargaining, with implicit self of factional interest involved. The interaction between the colonial power and its native wards was pulitika. At another level, it refers to the practices by which leaders cultivate ties of personal loyalty and indebtedness to them and simply attract votes. In the Philippines, pulitika is not politics (whether construed broadly as the totality of public or civic life or narrowly as democratic bargaining or consensus building). Rather, it is that field of politics largely constructed and dominated by the elites.It is in this context that families with economic resources and political skills come perpetuate themselves in power. The specific character of the Osmena dominance has been shaped by such factors as the American ethos of rational government, the personality, and temper of the Osmenas themselves, their belief in the electoral system and the characteristics of the region in which they have founded their beliefs. To a significant extent, the Osmenas are not only instrumentalists but true believers in the precepts of liberal democracy and free enterprise.Theirs, however, is a minimalist ideology subordinated to the exigencies and demands of action in the realm of pulitika. It is also an ideology that mobilizes people around their leadership does not empower them nor seriously address the structural problems of Philippine society. The Osmena dominance has been shaped as well by the practical grosser realities of power maintenance in the Philippines, which require of leaders not only ideological competence but expedience skill s in realpolitik, in the lower-oder devices of lying, bribery, horse trading, and thuggery.Political culture has constructed the families like the Osmenas, for a political family is the sum not just what its members posses or do but of how it is regarded in the community. Politicians like the OsmenaÃ¢â¬â¢s adjust because of the altered conditions: modifying the rhetoric by adding new messages, revising their campaign style and addressing new issues. By doing so they can appropriate new symbols, coop new leaders, re-establish new borders that keep political action bounded yet pressures from the below will make it increasingly difficult to give new life or maintain the old boundaries.To the extent that these pressures build and are not meaningfully confronted, the Osmenas may find that no longer holds sway, that the terms of the struggle have shifted radically, and that the struggle for power is now taking place elsewhere. Synthesis Elite families can be seen as both object and subj ect of history, shaping and being shaped by the processes of change. In many countries all over the world, elite families engaged in politics to gain power and influence, in turn they shape the history of their country. Among these are political families from Brazil, Mexico, and United States.As the family-based approach in history was employed and developed in these countries, the interest to utilize this approach in the history of Southeast Asian countries grew. The Philippines as a weak, postcolonial state became a breeding ground for strong and influential political families that defined the history of the country. The leading family of Cebu, the Osmenas, emerged through the use of their skills in statecraft. The Osmenas have displayed their brilliance in organizing their political machinery and the employment of symbols during elections.Meanwhile, the Lopezeses of Iloilo, started as hacienderos until they became leading national actors and businessmen in 1950s. The great influe nce, wealth, and success of the Lopez brothers until today can be attributed to their rent-seeking activities. Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology Chapter 3 has four parts: (1) Research Design, (2) Data Sources and Collection, (3) Site and Participant Selection, and (4) Data Treatment Procedures and Analysis Part 1, Research Design, discusses the structure of the study and the research approach to which the study will be anchored.Part 2, Data Sources and Collection, addresses the sources of the data and presents the research method that will be employed. Part 3, Site and Participant Selection, describes the rationale for choosing the setting of the study on how the participants will be collected. Part 4, Data Treatment Procedure and Analysis, details the specific procedures in analyzing the data that will be collected during the study. Research Design This study will follow the principles of the qualitative research.According to Holloway (1997, 2), qualitative research is a fo rm of social inquiry that focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences and the world in which they live. A number of different approaches exist within the wider framework of this type of research, but most of these have the same aim: to understand the social reality of individuals, groups and cultures. Researchers use qualitative approaches to explore the behavior, perspectives and experiences of the people they study. The basis of qualitative research lies in the interpretive approach to social reality.In line with the research design, the researchers will utilize the case study as the approach for this study. The case study approach (Yin 1980, 2) is a research strategy entailing an empirical investigation of a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence, and is especially valuable when the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are blurred. RESEARCH DESIGN Experiential Knowledge Preliminary Interviews Li terature Review Preliminary Conceptual Model Observation Interviews Documentary Evidence FindingsRevised & Enhanced Conceptual Model Working Hypotheses Member Checks Final Report Data Sources and Collection Historical method will be used to investigate the political history of Aklan in the lens of familial perspective. Historiography, according to Furay and Salevouris (1979, 223-224) is the study of the way history has been and is written, it is the history of historical writing. In studying historiography, there is no need to study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians.The researchers in order to collect detailed data needed in this study will employ participant observation. Participant observation (Pearson 1995, 1) refers to a form of sociological research methodology in which the researcher takes on a role in the social situation under observation. The researchers will also directly interview the pa rticipants. Interviews (Lincoln, Y. S. , and Guba 1985, 37) provide very different data from observations: they allow the evaluation team to capture the perspectives of project participants, staff, and others associated with the project.In the hypothetical example, interviews with project staff can provide information on the early stages of the implementation and problems encountered. Key informant interviews will also be conducted. Key informant interviews (Pearson 1995, 1) are qualitative in-depth interviews with people who know what is going on in the community. The purpose of key informant interviews is to collect information from a wide range of people including community leaders, professionals, or residents who have firsthand knowledge about the community. The researchers will also conduct document studies.Existing records often provide insights into a setting and/or group of people that cannot be observed or noted in another way. This information can be found in document form . Lincoln and Guba (1985, 198) defined a document as any written or recorded material not prepared for the purposes of the evaluation or at the request of the inquirer. Documents can be divided into two major categories: public records, and personal documents (Guba and Lincoln 1981, 22). Site and Participant Selection The selection of the setting for this research will be the Province of Aklan.Two reasons were seen necessary for the researchers: first, there are several political families in the Province of Aklan, and second, the province has a rich political history. The participant for this research will be conducted among a purposively selected political family in the Province of Aklan. Data Treatment Procedure and Analysis A case study analysis consists of making a detailed description of the case and its setting. (Creswell 2007, 163) in analyzing the data, the researchers will create an organized file for data.They will then read through texts and make margin notes from its ini tial codes. After organizing and reading the data, the researchers will describe the case and its context. The researchers will then use categorical aggregation to establish themes or patterns. After establishing the themes or patterns, the researchers will use direct interpretation to interpret the case. They will then develop a naturalistic generalization. Lastly, after developing a naturalistic generalization, the researchers will present an in-depth picture of the case or cases using narrative, tables, and figures.