Sunday, March 31, 2019
Relationship Between eudaimonia polity and wellnessc ar in the UKI wellness and Public form _or_ system of governmentIntroductionsociable indemnity is existence polity that relates to wellness, plump turn up, poverty, upbringing and well macrocosm issues and focuses on hearty run and welfargon state. affable polity is the psychoanalyse of affable welf ar and how it relates to politics and society. Social policies refer to government policies relating to welfargon, friendly security and protection of an individual in a state and the ship dissolveal in which welfare is developed and administered in a state (Hill, 1986). The steer areas of well-disposed constitution aimed towards government objectives of a welfare state areAdministrative practices and policies of sociable military serve ups which include wellness, social security, education, housing, employment and biotic community and social handlePolicies towards tackling social crimes, and problems with unemployment, drug abuse, disability, mental wellness, learning difficulties and ageing ageSocially disadvantageous issues of race, gender, poverty and the related collective social responses and responsibilities towards these conditionsThe broader subject area of social insurance policy is heavily dependent on disciplines of sociology, precaution, semipolitical science, philosophy, law, psychology and social work. The aims and objectives of a British Welfare acres highlight the importance of well creation of e really individual with a range of go provided to protect mountain in conditions much(prenominal) as sickness, poverty, old age and childhood and in much(prenominal) a mind , welfare is to a greater accomplishment than involves fulfillment and relates to complete well being of individuals. Welfare provisions are based on humanitarian, religious, democratic or practical concerns and involve economic and social benefits such(prenominal) as obliteration of povert y and governmental duty and social responsibility (Hill, 1986).In this screen we will smokestack with the consanguinity of welfare and social policy with health bring off, in token inside the UK through the NHS systems and de take apartment of health. For an analysis of health and public policy at heart the UK we will analyze the stages of health policy, the rationale for such policies and how these policies are carried out through a health suffice network.Health premeditation coverage provided worldwide is apt(p) in a comparative degree chart sight the stairs. UK, Sweden and France is seen to consent the same level of hospital and ambulatory grapple services with USA immortaliseing lower levels of health share services when compared with worldwide ensamples.Health rush and Social PolicyThe definition of health can be disposed(p) in bourns of cultural standards in which health is a standard of mental and physical well being agree to a occurrence society and a general earnest health is incumbent to come mental and physical activities optimally. Health is alike defined normatively as an ideal mental or physical state. Health depends on several factors such as biological factors, environmental factors, standard of living, social factors, nutrition, and psychological or emotional factors (WHO, 2005). up sanitation systems, providing aesculapian interest and support systems and clean water supply to prevent morbific diseases are the general responsibilities of health authorities (Jones, 1995). Inequalities in health especially in the UK can be cod to poverty, or differences in social class as certain categories of the great unwashed whitethorn be more aware of their health and fitness needs than certain new(prenominal)s (Graham and Kelly, 2004).Health policy in the UK is utilise through a wide health business concern network provided by the plane section of health and NHS. The different branches providing health negociate in the UK include the Hospitals which provide care to patients for both acute and great stay illnesses and provide medical facilities such as emergency interference, psychiatrical care or continuing nursing care. The governmental emphasis is to smear all keen-sighted term needs which can be intimately expensive and offer a fully range of care in the hospitals providing acute services. Primary care is more basic medical interference and refers to non-hospital care including general family practitioners and general physicians, professions ancillary to medicine and domiciliary health care such as occupational therapy (Allsop, 1995). Ambulatory care is unequivocal from, yet a category of hospital care as it includes immemorial care and day care in hospitals.Public health policy is a general care strategy including preventive medicine such as screening and health education and several areas which may not be directly linked to health services such as housing, water supply, sewage disp osal, food hygiene and general poverty and employment conditions which are also factors related to health.For health of a population in a state, public health needs and related issues are very serious down the stairs the health care policy at a governmental administrative level. For medical care in practice, primary care provided by primary care trusts of the NHS and services of general physicians are crucial at a more social level. Hospital care and medicines provided involves the highest be for the NHS, is an distinguished political issue for the UK government and has the highest priority for the NHS health policy implementation (Wall, 1999).Some of the Health policy objectives and strategies on health care place by the NHS and Department of Health are given below (NHS, 2005)Modernization PolicyPrimary dispense PolicySecondary Care PolicyIntegrated Care PolicyPatient Centeredness or Patient-centered Care PolicyComplaints PolicyOccupational Health and Safety PolicySocial Ser vices Performance Assessment PolicyInformation Policy at heart the governing bodyal repairment plans, the NHS health improvement modernisation plans (HIMPs) involve a deuce-ace yr planning model and details roles and responsibilities for the NHS primary care trusts (PCTs) and builds on the Planning and Priorities Framework (PPF) guidance issued in 2002. Within this framework PCTs are responsible for developing new Local Delivery Plans (LDPs) and whatever summarizeitional PCT owned local plans (NHS, 2005).The planning of Health Policies for modernization and improvement of services deep follow through the NHS consists of the following six steps that are to be maintained in every cheek and community This is given by the Department of Health official state 2003-2006The areas of responsibility for NHS and Social services for health policy implementation are given in the table below.In terms of Primary care policy, the NHS and social care long term conditions model laid down h ealth policies and models for long term care to good examples already under NHS give-and-take. Some of the key objectives and directs in spite of appearance the Primary care policy are given as The tercet levels of the Health care delivery system are given by the Department of Health as follows DH, 2005The NHS social care long term conditions model is given as Source NHSOrganizational Health PolicyThe implications of NHSD complaints policy realise been accentuate in a recent NHS report and include the following conditionsComplaints Policy ImplicationsIt has been recognized that how well the policy whole kit and caboodle depends largely on attitudes of individual members and the culture of the organization and although complaints act as potential sources of improvement of health care services, these are also declarative of the high level of dissatisfaction regarding current health care procedures. There is well higher level of complaints for family health services as it ha s been identified that in primary care services are n a minuscule scale and informally man aged(a) and the role of individual practitioners are more important than the organizational network. Satisfactory and prompt resolution of complaints has been identified as important to improving health care services (Allsop, 1995).Three factors in particular are likely to be underlying to improving execution as given by the NHS and Department of Healtha realization that complaints management is an explicit part of the answerancemanagement framework.The instrument panel of every NHS organization should be held accountable for the performance of theorganization in handling complaints. And the board should train that (a) all stave areadequately trained to deal with complaints (b) module managing complaints have adequateadministrative and technical resources and also adit to managerial supervision and support and (c) the complaints procedure is integrated into the clinical regime as well as quality framework of the organization.Consideration should be given to the k immediatelyledge of a National Service Framework or itsequivalent for the management of complaints. (NHS, Complaints Procedure National military rank, 2001)The National strategy for IT and computer services help deliver an up to date medical service to its hoi polloi, through the NHS selective information policy. Some of the strategic directions of the information policy in the health care sector include (See in Allsop, 1995 Wall 1995 NHS 2001 report)Specifying the level of matter direction given for IT by evolving and simplifying management structure and responsibilities at bottom both the DH and NHS at regional and local levelsto deliver change speedily following an implementation fire in phases focus at a time on apace delivering a limited portfolio of activity, subject arealy,that can be built on by subsequent phasesmanagement of increased levels of funding with clear central directio n and controla structured partnering approach with IT Industry to deliver new IT systems across the NHScoordination, acceleration and simplification of procurements to ensure we get value for money while moving at a faster pace, and cutting down on unnecessary time and terms to the health care industryConsideration of radical outsourcing options that can add pace and value to the programmeEmphasis on changed running(a) practices in the NHSBenchmarking elevate against best practice companiesBuilding IT and networking connectivity, so that all staff have the access devices they need to share information andCreating national standards for entropy quality and info interchange between systems at local, regional and national levels so that even the public can have access to information stored and accessed at a national level.A National Strategic program for Health care modernization and improvement and provisions of services in general can be given by the following architectural mod el provided by the Department of healthInformation Health Policy Source DHConclusionIn this essay we discussed health care and social policy in terms of its stages of development through a three year plan and IT approach specifying levels of health care services that are provided and NHS social care through interaction of proper infrastructure, delivery strategies and want outcomes of treatment. The focus is on reducing waiting measure for emergency treatment or health services at hospitals and primary care centers. We highlighted the importance of modernization, updated IT systems, primary care services, complaints policy and patient centered care as important aspects of health policy followed by the NHS laying down strategic programmes, directions and objectives for an overall health care system as a social and public policy. In the next discussion we would examine the rationale and potentiality of such policies within the context of political motivations and welfare objectiv es.II potency of Health PolicyIntroductionIn this section we would examine the policies that have been implemented in the last few years within the NHS and have served as political and administrative tools both as a pith of political achievement and measure of social services provisions (Batchelor, 2005). Evaluation of health policy followed by the department of health can be done by comparing target objectives with the attained levels of service. Evaluation can also be done by analyzing seek studies, news reports and NHS and Department of Health annual reports on what are the specific targets that were achieved and which are the objectives that were identified and yet could not be achieved through their policies. The discussion would thus show the flaws in the health framework, the differences in aims and achievements and analyze why certain objectives could not be reached along with the strengths and weaknesses of the policies in general.According to the DH plans, DH policies are designed to improve on existing arrangements in health and social care, and turn political vision into actions that should benefit staff, patients and the public (Department of Health, 2005). The DH notes that a DH health policy covers legion(predicate) areas of working includingthe way patients and the public have carehow NHS and social care organizations are runinformation engine room and other facilities that support the delivery of health care. (DH, 2005)A policy is largely evaluated by three features as to whether itcan be implemented quicklyachieves its purposedoes not work an unnecessary burden on NHS and social care staff.A policy is meant to help rather than hinder NHS working and thus it should be idle to implement, evaluate and give quick and noteworthy results.DH Annual Reports fannys and ProgressThe get analysis given by the DH annual reports shows the targets and the extent to which the objectives have been achieved by the Department of healththe aim to transform health and social care systems so that it produces better and faster services to tackle health inequalities was emphasized along with the objective of improving health outcomes for everyone. (DH report, 2004)TargetReduce easily the mortality place from major killers by 2010 from circulatory disease by at least 40% in people under 75 from cancer by at least 20% in people under 75 and from suicide and undetermined blemish by at least 20%. Key to the delivery of this target will be implementing the National Service Frameworks for coronary heart disease and mental health and the NHS Cancer Plan.Measure Death rate from circulatory disease amongst people aged under 75. Death rate from cancer amongst people aged under 75. Death rate from intentional self harm and injury of undetermined intent.ProgressA small plainly statistically prodigious increase in the number of deaths coded to cancers was identified, A small just statistically significant increase in the number of deat hs coded to circulatory diseases was identified. Data for 2000-02 (3 year average) show a rate of 16.0 deaths per 100,000 population a rise of 0.6% from the baseline (1995-97). Single year data for financial year 2001-02 show a rate of 313.9 hospital admission fees per 100,000 population a decrease of 2.3% from the baseline visualize (1995-96). A National Suicide Prevention Strategy was published in September 2002 led by the National Director for Mental Health. As this is implemented it will contribute to reducing the suicide rate. Although not statistically significant, there has been a small increase in numbers of deaths put down to suicide and intentional self harm.2. the second aim is to treat people with illness, disease, or injury quickly, effectively, and on the basis of need alone (DH report, 2004)TargetEnsure everyone with suspected cancer is able to see a specialist within two weeks of their GP decision making they need to be seen urgently and requesting an appoi ntment for all patients with suspected meet cancer from April 1999, and for all other cases of suspected cancer by 2000.MeasurePercentage of patients with suspected breast cancer and other cancers able to see a specialist within 2 weeks.Progress99% of patients referred urgently with suspected cancer were seen within 2 weeks during July to September 2003. For the same period for breast cancer this common fig stands at 98.2%.3. a third important objective identified has been to modify people who are unable to perform essential activities of daily living, including those with inveterate illness, disability or terminal illness, to live as full and general lives as possible.TargetImprove the delivery of appropriate care and treatment to patients with mental illness who are discharged from hospital and reduce the national average emergency psychiatric re-admission rate by 2 division points by 2002 from the 1997-98 baseline of 14.3%.MeasureAverage emergency psychiatric admission rate. ProgressPsychiatric re-admission rate in 2001-02, the last year data was collected on a readmissions within 90 day basis, was 12.7% narrowly missing the target by 0.4 percentage points. in time, with the implementation of new service models such as emphatic outreach, early intervention and crisis resolution, further fall in readmission rates are expect, though this might not bare itself until after 2002-03. (DH reports, 2001)the quartetteth objective we have chosen for discussion is Improving patient and Carer experience of the NHS and Social Services.(DH annual report, 2004)TargetPatients will receive treatment at a time that suits them in accordance with their clinical need two thirds of all outpatient appointments and inpatient elective admissions will be pre-booked by 2003-04 on the way to 100% pre-booking by 2005.MeasureDH monthly central data collection from January 03. Supersedes the Modernization function monthly image take place reports.ProgressOn course A monthly DH central data collection was introduced in January 03.The monthly data collection captures full bookings and partial bookings as they are added to the waiting list. This allows rigorous monitoring of progress towards booking milestones and targets. A Data Set Change Notice was issued in 2000 to the service in support of the new monitoring arrangements The Modernization Agency National Booking Team is assisting challenged Trusts to work towards achieving key booking milestones and targets. The convalescence and Support Unit (RSU) is also working with challenged Trusts. From April 2003, Strategic Health authorities are responsible for managing and developing booking locally as part of their Local Delivery Plan (DH annual reports, 2004)We have delineated four important objectives among several health care policy plans laid down by the NHS and Department of Health. The first objective discussed is aimed towards providing faster and better services for improving health outcomes of ever yone. This was specified as reducing mortality rates from killer diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and accidents. The targets tho have not been achieved as there has been significant rise in deaths from cancer, heart disease and accidents in the last few years since the target was set. Although there has been a decrease in the number of hospital admissions, deaths due to suicide and intentional self harm have also gone up. From this analysis it is only suggested that the target for improving general health outcomes by reducing mortality rates has not been achieved as specified by the Department of Health.Examining the second objective of providing treatment to people effectively and quickly on the basis of need suggest that everyone with cancer or such ailments should be able to visit their GP within 2 weeks of their deciding to see their practitioner and waiting times should be cut down considerably. The progress report shows that 99% of the cancer patients were abl e to see their GP within 2 weeks of their decision and this suggests that the target objective in this case has been nearly met.The third objective we have highlighted is that gibe to the NHS plan, just about disenable or chronically ill patients should be able to support themselves and perform daily activities and acquire as normal life as possible. This was effectively studied by using psychiatric illness as an index finger of chronic disability and hospital readmission rates as important measures of decision out to what extent chronically ill patients are able to lead normal lives or support themselves. Although the readmissions measure shows that targets and objectives were narrowly missed in previous years, in more recent times due to assertive outreach and early intervention and crisis resolution, there were considerable falls in psychiatric readmission rates suggesting that some progress is definitely being made on general improvement of health of people who are chronica lly disabled.The fourthly aim was improving patient and carer experience of NHS and social services provided by beginning pre-booking services and it is emphasized that all clinical services should be pre booked by the year 2005. This is largely a procedure under the aegis of the NHS modernization agency as pre booking services are also IT related and a general improvement of IT systems are associated with achieving this target. However according to DH reports, this target achievement is already on course and most of the health services are now pre booked and waiting times for appointment have reduced significantly.Following an analysis of objectives and aims and the targets achieved by the NHS according to Health care policy, we would take a look at performance of the health care sector and the ratings obtained by primary, secondary trusts. The results of 2002-2003 are given belowOverall there are 579 NHS trusts that have been rated for their performance in 2002/2003.Evidence on H ealth Policy Implementation IssuesFrom an analysis of DH annual reports on progress and targets that have or have not been achieved in the past few years, we no move on to clinical leaven and research studies that have formed the basic evaluative tool for health policy implementation appraisal. Ujah et al (2004) provided an evaluative national to establish the nature, extent and organization of occupational health services provisions for people within the NHS and reviewed the systems for monitoring NHS performance. Within the NHS trusts, human resource managers and occupational health managers were selected for the study and were invited to complete an interviewer led questionnaire. All the 17 trusts in which the interview was carried out advanceed that they do provide occupational health service to their employees and the provisions and organization of these services were under the human resource unit. However only 29% of the trusts could provide a written health policy with 87 % of occupational health mangers claiming that they only provide a rather reactive service based on patient needs, rather than health policy objectives. The authors spy considerable variation sin the level, nature and quality of services provided by the NHS trusts and concluded as a result of their findings that there are significant differences in the level of occupational health service available to staff across the NHS in London. From this study it is evident that health policy as an initiative only serves as a framework for achievement and may not ultimately be followed in the same way as there are significant differences in the way policies are implemented in different NHS trusts.New health policies that tend to integrate education and training with research and implementation tend to support new practitioners to perform health care research and Bateman et al (2004) evaluate the policy of supporting health care professionals who have some interest in research. The authors clai m that there may be considerable value in development of research objectives within the NHS RD wing and mention that Future policies may need to address the indicators used in measuring the success of such schemes the relationship between what individuals choose to do and its context within national policy on research and development and the sustainability of involvement in research (Bateman et al, 2004, p.83)Evaluating the information systems and up gradation of IT networking within the NHS, Wyatt and Wyatt (2003) argue that evaluating large scale health information systems such as in hospital systems can be lengthy and difficult procedure. However they discuss the reasons for which such evaluation is necessary and the appropriate methods to carry out these evaluations. This information as they suggest is supposed(p) to be directed towards an assessment of health policy and is thus expected to provide feedback to health policy makers and help in improvement of health and public po licies. The authors discuss many experimental designs to carry out their research and also study the impact of communications system within a laboratory setting, the potential problems and how they could be resolved. Wyatt and Wyatt conclude that the correct methods to evaluate health information systems in hospitals and clinics do not depend on the technology being evaluated but on the reliability of answers given for evaluation.Health policies such as patient centered care approach (Webster, 2004), integrated clinical governance (Cauchi 2005) and nurse led intervention services (Lees 2003) have been effectively implemented and successful although posing major challenges to NHS to constantly improve policies according to targets and objectives.Carter et al (2003) evaluated multi-disciplinary team working as a policy and the intensity level of introducing new organizational structure within the NHS. Although the authors emphasized that as a result of this policy very little have ch anged so far, but the interests that such a multi-agency working approach has generated suggest that this may be the beginning of medical practice that can link the changes in work practices with improvements in quality of services1. Within the NHS framework, multidisciplinary team working is developing to fly high roles of traditional institutional boundaries and form complex clinical networks. However these networks could become increasingly autonomous from current NHS structures. The authors discuss the possibility of forming chambers for doctors as well as other professionals as a means of working together in groups. Multilevel working at the NHS is as of now a very effective health care policy but needs even further evaluation and suggestions for improvement.ConclusionWithin this particular discussion we have tried to analyze the health care policies and targets and evaluated these objectives in terms of achievement and progress in policy implementation within the health care sector in the UK. For our purposes we have used targets and progress report from annual results published by the DH. Evidential information on policy effectiveness have also been provided where we suggested that health care polici
An Introduction To Euro-BankingAs the whole levels of scotch be rising, the thought of people and companies just about(predicate) money are more(prenominal) important. Banking is financial institutions to dive public deposits, issuing loans and bills discounted, and opposite processing. It through deposits, loans, foreign exchange, savings and early(a) business, take the credit intermediary financial institutions. Casu (2006) said edges wipe out ternion roles that are size trans mildewation, maturity transformation, and risk transformation to collect gold from units in surplus and lend funds to unit in deficit.(Introduction to banking, 2006, P 7)So eurobanking is financial intermediaries that intervention go for Euro money commercialize. It has global service for each(prenominal) branches and customers. to a fault, it uses modern communication tools, and relies on its advanced technology and management to fit transaction for Eurocurrency marketplace place. In addition, supply and demand of atomic number 63an currencies was linked to form a number of famous financial cen successioners. Therefore, eurobanking is a tool to co live on atomic number 63an currency becoming an in effect(p) and yieldting a eminent degree of global integration.Summing up, although European currency is a virtual market, eurobanking sens help Europe market, and bring effectively working. And the purpose of eurobanking is to provide an chance for members to improve for European currency financial markets. germhttp//www.eurobankingonline.net/wel fix.htmMain torsoFacing on economic forces, there are m any(prenominal) sides to turned on(p) and sustained eurobanking. For example, there are comparative and competitive utilitys, economies of clustering and agglomeration, muddle economies, globalisation, and internationalisation to influence and protect eurobanking.Firstly, from the characteristic of Eurocurrency market, the relationship between euronbanking and economic forces can be picturen. Eurocurrency market is a rattling attractive market. It is very polar between other market and financial markets in western countries, as well as traditional international financial markets. Besides it is a free international financial market, and has the following main features of(1) It is operate very free. Because the European currency market is countries non obey to any restrictions on government regulation and taxation of the market. For example, it is a flexible loan terms, then borrower does not limit uses. Therefore, this market is not only self-consistent with the needs of multinational companies and importers and exporters, un slight similarly in line with umteen Western countries and developing countries.(2) Its huge funds. The money for Euro market funds is come from around the world. And it could fit a variety of different types of countries and their banks, businesses and the different purposes for different needs.(3) Scheduli ng flexibility. Euro market is simplicity, and it has a strong competitive. Because these funds without any jurisdiction. The market and the Western countries comparing with the traditional, there is a strong competitive.(4) A anomalous(p) come to rate system. Its deposit rates relatively high but lending interest rates are relatively low. It is because it is not typesetters case on the maximum interest rates on deposits. Therefore, the deposits and borrowers have same attractive for European market.(5) A wholesale market. its operating is in the legal age of transactions between banks. Interbank lending of funds between the money market operations in Europe accounted for a large proportion of the total. It is also a wholesale market, as some borrowers and depositors are some greathearted clients, Therefore, a great amount of each transaction, generally vary from a few million, more than you can reach hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars.Source http//wiki.mbalib. com/wiki/%E6%AC%A7%E6%B4%B2%E8%B4%A7%E5%B8%81%E5%B8%82%E5%9C%BAFrom this information, we will know eurobanking is a financial intermediary to help the Eurocurrency to get its goal and great benefit.So the eurobanking also has these feature that are free operate, huge funds, scheduling flexibility, and unique interest rate of euro marke.There is bar table fingers breadth 13.4 to show income composition of the eurobanking. At begin eurobanks have over 70 per cent net interest income of their revenue from business loans in 1994, but when 2003 the figure had declined to 60 per cent. From this table eurobanking can help European market to operate.Johns opinion (2001)is that eurobanking have large number of small local and regional banks ,however ,with veridical branch operations serving together with the main commercial banks and specialist lenders, a wide range of banking customer.(European banking 2001 P11)Secondly, Eurobanking is different from other bank about the structure and t heory, because it has different background between European joint and other country. In the same part, they are enterprise of running money, and their object is giving convenient to the social, which is a very important financial institutions member.On the other hand, we can see the different part that the target of eurobank is deposits into currency funds that are idle in the community and micro-currency to savings together. past in the way of loans to lent companies that need to get European currencies to use. In here, eurobank is as an intermediary to lenders and borrowers to act. Whats more, it is supply some(prenominal) services for a loan between residents and non-residents. It stands for eurobanking is especially department to bring the global economic training and social progress in an all-around way for European market. Because eurobanking have many feature that others banking mot have. For example, its operated very free, no government limit, and services the whole wo rld.Thirdly, in this part is Economies of clustering and agglomeration and eurobanking. We know European markets are component by globalisation and internationalisation banks. These banks have been pan-called Eurobank. So it is not an institution, but it likes function. European market operations consist of two separate one is the bank lending another part of non-bank transactions. From the loan funds, methods and practicable nature can be divided into money markets in Europe and the European capital markets.Therefore, eurobanking through many different ways, like get concert other banks and offer different services. For instance, it gives international lending business tends to spread, make sources of bank funds from sporadic to large. And use the way about frequently after the first, provides loans to borrowing, lending interest rates to borrow the interest rate changes with the periodic adjustment.From these methods, European market can assimilate many foreign banks funds and r unning them. Eurobanking also spend on long loans buyers credits and European bonds to offer, so the volume of business increased dramatically. Besides, it often gives the borrower to sign a loan contract, and at a later time to borrow money from other places.Finallytechnological have alter most industrial sectors, for the technological of banking as information-based firms to deal financial ,so it is essential for European market. Casu (2006) proposed the technological growth of eurobanking can supply saving in the cost and time of providing financial services and increased revenues through the development of an array of new financial product. And there are two factors to cast the technological innovation of eurobanking. First, the production function in banking has become more capital-intensive, given that the share of non-staff operating costs has increased in most of the European systems. Second diffusion of in formation technology is transforming banking sales talk channe ls. (Introduction to banking, 2006, P 361-363)Therefore eurobanking are well placed to take advantage of technological advances. And it can help banking chose the good way to improve their have innovative. Whats more it can purchase bespoke best-practice system and implement tem with less disruption.ConclusionEurobanking is good place to solve and process the economic services about is not existing in the country market profession. And the market transaction of European is the object of the European Monetary. To determine whether the amount of monetary is Europes money, it will depend on whether the payment of the deposit reserve requirement. In general, this work is done by eurobaking. Therefore, eurobaking is management the bank monetary liabilities the European currency non-resident offshore. Furthermore, it also manages European currencies in the non-residents and non-resident internal currency loans. Europe is mainly engaged in non-residents and non-resident lending has becom e separated from the domestic financial markets, the offshore financial market. It can be said that the traditional international financial markets are the external part of the worlds financial markets, man European currencies market is outside the part of the worlds financial markets.By these informantion about characteristic, different, clustering agglomeration, and technological of eurobanking, we can intensively to know what is eurobanking. It is financial intermediaries that handling the Eurocurrency market. And it can bring efficiency to Eurocurrency. Whats more, it has many especially characteristic than other banking. Likely, eurobanking is a tool to help European currency becoming an efficient and getting a high degree of global integration. And it is not special on some rate and banking services.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
AircraftsAbstractAircrafts throughout their journeys abridge to be in contact with ambience traffic asc sackences. Long stop marine crossing flights atomic number 18 increasing steadily every year ascribable to growing demands. The increasing air transaction whole everyplace the ocean is a serious concern for the controllers where the aircrafts argon beyond the eye of the microwave radar and fuse stations that track their motion in air. The present intercourse amongst the cockpit and the controller is a high frequency radio parley where the lieu of the aircraft is sent to the air transaction controller through a tertiary party radio operator who acts as an intermediary surrounded by them. comparatively the half duplex nature of the system and the use of a unmarried frequency channel add complexity to the riddle. Though the modern discourse theory is going through an era where graphical interaction systems argon world veritable, the conversation in an oceanic haul is electrostatic component part communication. This move on focuses to improve and analyze the operation of in crapation communication theory in exchanging culture in the midst of the pilot and the controller in oceanic haul immense thoroughf ars. The controller pilot data link communications is memorisen for analysis in its performance in oceanic avenues.IntroductionAviation has seen rapid developments. Modern airliners ar now heavily computerized monsters. They now fly high and faster. The role of an air handicraft control is massive in the sphere of influence of melodic phrase. Since they provide randomness some separate planes approaching ne atomic number 18r to them and take for spacing between planes. Pilots usuall(a)y communicate with the controllers using radio assist that allow them to use normal voice communications, which is the very existing problem in the industry of aviation. Demand for air traffic has been increasing steadily in recent times. Increasing flights to the United States of America go through light-emitting diode to the incr ministration in air traffic over the oceans which have in like manner intensified the job of the air controllers. With Nearly hundreds of carriers crossing the Atlantic every day, the responsibility of the air traffic control ar huge, because they atomic number 18 the nevertheless point of reference to a pilot for navigating and chi coffin naileing development about the traffic prevailing around him. The Traditional HF voice communication system has drawbacks which limits the points of communication between a pilot and an air traffic controller. Call sign confusion, interference and m whatsoever to a greater extent factors are overleap to a good landed estate to air communications. Effective communication oversight is primary concern in developing co-operative multi user interaction systems. for each one individual agent must know what, when and how to communic ate. Effective Utilization of divided up out communication resources alike should besides be taken in to account, when at that place is limited resource available. This needs more attention when the demand exceeds the potentiality of the system, and a priority is required This project focuses on how to improve communication between them, taking in to account assorted parameters that affect the contagion in a high frequency radio communication. Apart from, the adjudicate to replace traditional voice communication, to a schoolbook base communication using CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communication) in an oceanic haul is also developed,that would be a base to the hereafter aviation researches . downplayThe main idea is to achieve data link communication in a oceanic haul where at that place are no radar coverages and grond station contacts.This research was carried out in past ,over few old age back.The CPDLC is a continuously on-going research project.Some of the old papers are s money box being researches to achieve text based information ex varietys through datalink commnications.However callable to the advent of growth in technology each and every day,advances in research also take a new shape than and there. This has cause this project to evaluate the performance issues of applications in the aeronautical telecommunication intercommunicates ,which is the pillar vane in aviation .Aims and Objectives This dissertation aims to To develop a racy and reliable communication model using adhoc systems Research the various performance issues in using the ATN application CPDLC in long haul routes.The main objectives of this project is toReduce the work freightage of the air traffic controllers by developing text data communications using adhoc earningssReduce work load for pilotsPrevent congestion of air traffic Preventing air accidents due to misapprehension of communications from the controllerResearch MethodologyThe back land for this thes is includes a lot of introduction and information about how land to air communications take place.In order to review the present regulars of communication,to analyze their nature and also to under(a)stand its properties ,a very intense search has been made and during this phase ,references to various technical publications ,articles expert opinions were read and references from various foreign organizations like ICAO and Eurocontrol were taken up to write this thesis.After troubleful analysis, performance analyziz was made and implementing text based communication was studied.The next part of this project will discuss all necessary things needed to understand this thesis.Literature survey The History of communications in aviation is vast .We would be discussing only the current developments in modern technology and reviewing some of the applications developed in relations to this thesis. The standards in Aviation are monitored by certain governing bodies that are trustworthy for the safety and aegis of the air transport.The International genteel Aviation institution (ICAO) is the study governing body and specialized agengy of the United Nations for standard and recomm revokeed procedures in civil aviation.aeronautic telecommunication NetworkICAO having endorsed a proposal for the future communications in aviation that uses digital data connect to supplement voice communication to provide a good and reliable communication,has led to the development of aeronautic telecommunication communicate.It is an internationalistist infrastructure that manages digital data head between the aircraft and the air traffic control.In fact it is a dedicated network for aviation to provide seamless ground to air as well as ground to ground communication for the aircrafts.It is designed to support the increasing air traffic due to increasing demands.Development Of ATNAir traffic centering needed enhancements due to its rapid increase in traffic .as a result a singl e controller mickle non handle such a large amount of traffic .Hence the concept of distri excepted traffic handling were followed by the controllers to handle the rising amount of traffic.Efforts were also taken to automate traffic handling.When critical analysis were made regarding the automation of traffic,it became apparent that air traffic automation requires more exchange of computer to computer data turn over that included transfers between aircraft and ground computers.Apart from that automation also required infrastructures that need to be integrated with aircraft and ground stations.The real automation of this air traffic could be possible only data computers rather than being nonsymbiotic processors were also a networking peers with their respective ground stations.These operational objectives when immingled together led to a dedicated forming of a complete network unaccompanied for the field of aviation,that came to be known as the Aeronautical telecommunications n etwork. Data communications have been deployed both(air to ground and ground to ground ) for many years non only for air traffic management moreover also for administrative and ground operations.Besides the aeronautical telecommunications support a wide environment where tcket sales,crew duty rotas, stick out forecasts are all done.Certain standards and communications protocols are utilize. The international air transport associationhave developed a set of OSI profiles called the aeronautical OSI profile,that give the sack be utilise over the ATN.Benefits of ATN over the traditional networksThe ATN has scored over the traditional voice communications with a number of advantages that would make air travel more safe and secure.the side by side(p) are some of the advantages over whichAre described belowATN offers more clarity in communications.As a result re transmittal rate is reduced oft and interpretation errors are minimized in a long length communicationThe Communication channel is made use more effieciently to communicate data between the computers rather than usage of channel in voice communication.It gives increased possibility to connect two end users without knowing their locations in a global data communication network environment.It minimizes work load for the pilots and controllers ,since a number of preformatted and short text messages are available .These standard message are very well known to the pilots.These standards are globally fixed and they mean the same everywhere in world.Hence communication becomes simple ,eliminating misinterpretation errors completey.The multitude for accommodation of various ground systems like ATSC,AOC,AAC,APC are easily done using ATN.ATN provides a unique solution to accomplish a wide orbital cavity of data communications therby providing much ease and effiecient useage of the available resources.It provides a robust an reliable service to achieve higher(prenominal) availability and integrity that shoul d be need for an improved operational capability.It provides for incidentally exchange of ATS information between ground facility improving security and productivity of the entire systemThe in a higher place reasons justify that the ATN has unique boasts and its applications are widely fundamental in both ground to air as well us ground to ground communicationsThe ATN environment run in a global environment is always a repugn for a network .The ATN is designed to operate in extreme environment considering rough weather and new(prenominal)(a) circumstances.Apart from lot of constraints,the ATN has been designed to operate under quadruplet major situations .Each one is termed an element.The first element is to capability of the network to transfer data to an aircraft without the localizeer knowing where actually the aircraft is, in new(prenominal) words hidden identity.This network mobility is inherently the powerful feature of the Aeronautical telecommncation network.The next element is to use the available multiple links installed in aircraft simultaneously.In this case the specification of the cost,link and speed preferences are advised b the applications that ATN uses when publicity the data to an air borne system.It is these preferences that determine which link to be chosen to send and receive data over the other available links.The third element is to sustain all available low bandwidth links both grond and airlinks in this case.These links are normally used to compress the data to be sent.The last element is the normalization of the applications and all operate used by the ATN so that they remain the same throughout the world and do non cause further confusion in supporting applications.The ATN MobilityAn important feature in network is that all the other end users must know the availability of the datalinks so that congestion can be reduced.Hence it is necessary in a network to let to know the end users about the links and the multiple p aths that reach all the aircraft airborne.Broadcasts in a network can lead to a serious problem of flooding. Hence inorder to satisfy network mobility the ATN designers have stipulated a concept called the pillar routing technology.This effiecient technology restricts the broadcasting of information to avoid flooding but at the same time allows the ground system to send information about the availability of the links and other information to the nearest aircraft that are with ints reach. This simple code would easily try out the backbone routing implementation.The router r0 is the aircraft router that is airborne.Now when it is necessary to communicate with the router R7 .the ground router has to update all the backbone routers that the aircraft is aavailable for contact.It is also noted that only the routers in home vault of heaven are updated and all the others remain unnoticed.Hence considering this situation R1 R2 R 3 are updated and the others are left unnoticed .. Hence ro uters not in home macrocosm do not know what is happening. This avails to avoid flooding .The squares in the effigy represent applications used by the ATN. The CPDLC application of the ATN is discussed in the later chapters as how messages are transferred.Here application H1 when needs to communicate with aircraft airborne,has the router R8 in the home.R 8 does not know any information about the aircraft,so it forwards to the nearsest backbone router R2.R2 knows the information about the aircraft hence it sends the data to R7 through R1. Thus data traverses.In alike case, application H2 needing to communicate sends the data to R16,From there the backbone router R5 takes over.But R5 does not have any information about the aircraft hence instead of forwarding the pile to R5 it sends to R4 and then the same process takes place. Both the aircraft and the ground routers at the ground station communicate using a protocol called inter world routing protocol which forms the basis of th is inter scene of action routing.This is the protocol that redistributes data over the entire network without causing flooding and thereby enabling all the communication . Now there is yet another to note in this backbone routing. Preference based routing is necessary to allow multiple paths in a network to be available simultaneously.Some applications may require superior of service for cost and safety for performance isues.In such cases it is required to route over the other available routes.here in this considered case,aircraft router has both very high frequency and air conection .In case if the VHF is not available then a satellite connection is used to transfer data . accordingly the aircraft router R9 will take its turn to send information through the router R4 which is in ground .all entries are stored in packets by the routers they pass through.By this the packets can be examined by the other router for the shortest path to be taken to the destined aircraft it should be sent.Thus the mobility of the ATN works,adding more dependableness to the communication system .ACCOMODATION OF LOW BANDWIDTH As specifeied earlier the design of ATN is designated to accommodate the low bandwidth froundlinks to the network.Accordingly,the throughput for the groundlnks to operate in ATN is expected to operate in a low bandwidth than the available system today.Hence a compression methodology has to be used for thi purpose.The present VDL2 comunication used in aeronautical communication a channel that can transfer 32 k bits / second is shared by multiple aircraft using the carrier sense multiple feeler method.It is a notable feature that ATN has let also multiple compressions to pass along in its routers .The rate of compression is not a fixed one.It is laid when an aircraft enters the region of an ATN router .An open system interconnection network connectionless protocol is used for this kindhearted of purposes.It reduces hundred bytes of header information t o six btes.Another technique used to compress the header is the deflate technique.A deflate algorithm uses the similar kind of mechanisms used by the ZIP used in compact text files.It compresses both the header and the data units available to the aircraft .this way by compressing the data units,low bandwidth channels are made use by the ATN effieciently.APPLICATIONS OF THE ATNThe standardization of ATN by the international civl aviation organisatio has led to the development of four applications.These four applications are of more significance in the aviation industry since they help in navigation of aircrafts when air borne .These applications are Context Management voluntary bloodsucking surveillance systemControler pilot data link communicationsDigital-Inflight information systemThe digital inflight information system is used to get updates from the ground sation required for the flight such as weather udates and other traffic conditions in terminal area ehich is essential dur ing landing The controller pilot data communications is a essential development and this thesis would deal mainly with this application that exactly replaces the voice communications with the data messages to the extent it could do . The automatic dependent surveillance system is highky essential for the transmission of digital information regarding the position of the aircraft to the radar at the ground station so that automated networks and systems can maintain adequate insularity of aircrafts in air.The separation of aircrafts depending up on their size and type is an important consequence in the field of Aviation where it constitutes to the safety of the planes going at higher altitudes . Context management is another directional service,where specific features could be provided to the aircraft on logging in to that particular air traffic system,associated with the network address of the server at the ground station.Thus aircraft being guided till the terminal control are wher e the approach controller would take care after with the secondary radars being used for assistance .These applications would surely chair to the effective communication between the controllers and the pilots who are air borne.The functionality of The Aeronautical telecommunication Network The functionality of an aeronautical network seems to be little when compared to that of voice transmission networks,but it offers more robust connectivity and more integrity in communication between two end systems that are either fixed or busy or even adhoc,taking in to consideration for transition paths and end to end delays.ATN ComponentsNotably ATN supports many Full dupliex communication system. These are some of the sufferable forms of the communications Airline systems and ATS systems Airline and aircraft systems ATS and aircraft systems ATS systems inter attached Airline syatems inter connected togetherAirline systems refer to the maintainence syatems that the airlines deploy such as jaunt deliveries and others whereas aircraft systems refer to the systems actually in aircraft that help to navigate the syatemsThe above figure shows the typical environment of an ATNSubnetworks,Routers and the residualsyatems are the major components that constitute to the building of an ATN.SubnetworksSubnetworks which form a part of the comuication network. A subnetwok forms the major transferring medium between the sytems in the ATN.They are infact a major component of ATN .Usually packet switching netwrks are the subnetworks used in ATN. A lot of grond as well as air borne systems are equip with capability of supporting this features in ATN.Subnetworks can be of two types. reason to Ground (Fixed) Air to Ground (Mobile)Ground to Ground subnetworks are usually local are networks connecte with in subsytems .It can be the local airport network connected with the ATC to share weather and other advisory informations where there is no controllers employed for certain routes. topical anaesthetic area networks employed with token ring ,Ethernet FDDIare nowadays used as ground subnetworksAir to Ground networks are usually wide are networks .They are used when the air craft is air borne and hence communicates with the ATC controllers.Based up on the type of Network the ATN routers adapts itself to transfer the data packets between the neighboring(a) subnetworks.The various air to ground subnetworks include Very High frequence Subnetwork Satellite communication Mode S subnetwork HF subnetworksThe HF and vogue S subnetworks are mostly used in short range communications.Mostly short haul flights that travel in the European continents are equipped with instruments that make use of the Mode S Subnetworks.Both the communications and the automatic dependent surveillance for spacing can be achieved with Mode S which is relatively cheap when compared others.HF Networks are much more similar networks but are used in relatively average haul flights which are in co ntinuous contact with grund stations throughout their journeys with out any oceanic travel.Satellite communication and VHF networks are the physical transfer mediums used in Long haul oceanic flights .RElativekly costlier for communication but still used in modern days.RoutersThe ATN routers play a major role in routing the packets to disagreeent subnetworks thus maintaining the integrity of the network.Since the air crafts change their course during their course of flight,the path taken in a network to reach that aircraft must be determined accordingly.It is the routers that decide the traversing of packets at any stage in network.The routing is performed on the basis of class of service the packets bespeak and the availability of the links in the network. Dynamic routing is also supported by ATN ,allowing each router to update ,due to the changing courses taken overby flight and other failures occurring unintentionally where an alternate path is chosen.Routers operate at the th ird stage of the OSI layer according to a set of predefined protocols.The necessary information to route the packet are present in the header of the encapsulated packet that a router that deals with. Routers in ATN can be broadly classified in to two types .Intra reality routers (static or dynamic)Inter domain routersThe intra domain routers are local routers that are used in local domains and are not to global international standards.But the inter domain routers are all set to global international standards and can handle more traffic than inter domain routers .The ATN routers differ from the Normal routers by certai features that distinguish them.those are listed. In a ATN router there is a possibility of applying specific policies that enable the supporting of mobile communication providing effiecient air to ground routing The enhanced security system that ATN adheres to protect the fiddle of data. Use of compression methods to accommodate low bandwidths in air to fround links and other data networks. Termination procedures and initialization of a new route when an aircraft enters the system or leaves is a major advantage in an ATNEnd syatemThese system integrate the host system with the network.all the application level services are coordinated to the host by these end systems to establish communications with the peer to peer system in network.They have the capacity to communicate with another subnetworks end systes in order to provide end to end communications to the ATN applictons that handle operations. It is for this purpose they have a seven ayered protocol push-down storage that hosts appropriate communication services in support to the applications of the ATN.The above figure relates the constituent elements of the aeronautical telecommunication networks with the OSI layer protocol stack structures ,that helps in establishing peer to peer commuications with end systems.ATN domains Unlike other networks ATN has also domains that are essential for routing purposes.Each domain may have inter domain router and end systems. To make the routing process simplified the administrations of the adjacent domains may combine together to form a single domain sharing a policy and hence making it single. Administrative domains are part of ATN where they are managed by a single authority.This administrative domains are either the Civil Aviation Authority ,an Air traffic controller or an international aeronautical communication service provider (IACSP)A routing domain may have the following characteristics. All informations regarding the connectivity and quality of the service related with the innate systems are are exchanged without any restrictions. With in a domain ,selected routes(the common routes to the other systems lying away(p) the domains ) may be announce by a BIS router. These routes advertised by the BIS routers to the other routers that lie outside the domains are controlled by a policy that enforced by the advertising BIS router .The figure gives an example of an ATN domainThus the very basic essentials of a data network that is used to exchange informations was discussed. In next chapters VHF which is used as a physical transfer medium is discussed .
Friday, March 29, 2019
make Based Technology and Continuing Medical EducationThis dissertation explores the exploitation up of web found technology to enhance and maintain adjective readinesss in the context of act medical examination pedagogics. The research was initiated by the perceived subscribe for novel and imaginativeness methods of providing procedural skills reproduction to health practiti matchlessnessrs. This observation, emboldened by schooling necessarily depth psychology, led to the propose and implementation of a sack base educational alternative aimed at doctors and other healthc ar practitioners. The perspicacity damp of the research foc employ on an semiempirical military rank of the authorization of this nett found educational choice.This dissertation draws on a recite of strands of Health In ordericsPrincipals of Heath InformaticsResearch Methodsclinical tuition SystemsCreating On nisus Educational alternativesWhilst on a small scale, the results atom ic number 18 germane(predicate) to medical educators involved in developing and evaluating web base educational resources. backclothMedical practitioners receive panoptic procedural skills fosterage and it is pass judgment that this is keep and rhythmi cryy updated to limit skills moulder and ensure clinical competency. Skills decay is delimitate as the loss of a trained or an acquired skill subsequentlyward a issue of non engage. Skills decay rapidly as the period of non physical exercise lengthens and the boundary of the decay is influenced by the timbreistics of the skill and how and when these skills were learnt. Arthur et al., (1998) Skills are classified both as closed cringle or open intertwine tasks. Arthur et al., (1998). Closed loop tasks are fixed sequence tasks with a define beginning and end, for example, the preoperative anaesthetic machine check. Open loop tasks are tracking and business solving tasks, for example, managing patient roles hypoxia. Ar thur et al., (1998) in their check bulge on the rate of skills decay and its influencing factors reason come forth that closed loop tasks decay more(prenominal) slowly than opened loop tasks. Arthur et al., (1998) also mentions that mental tasks decay more quickly than physical tasks and after 28 to 90 days of non implement of the trained skills, task manageance declines by 23% and by 40% after a year of nonuse.Clinical practice alone may be insufficient to prevent skills decay as indicated in a simulated airway management facts of flavour get a line Kovacs et al., (2000). Skills decay quickly without practice and procedural skills are alone optimally retained when trainees regularly practiced the summons on their own, in their own measure and received periodic feedback. Training on show modalities, mannequins, fresh cadavers and live patients engage the capableness to successfully tutor the procedural skill with significantly less skills decay over time as compared to didactic t case-by-caselying alone. TI L et al., (2006). The traditional one to one apprenticeship model of medical procedural skills schooling and the in-hospital continuous medical education and maintenance of a skills base are often inefficient, expensive, and labour intensive. Patients, who are often utilise as practice tests subjects during skills training, safety is reliant on the medical practitioner skills retention and task competency.Maintaining procedural skills competency may prove to be increasingly more challenging as expenditure, time constraints, acquirable manpower, lack of resources and patients reluctance to be utilise as observational models make this endeavor increasingly impossible to set up. The resultant widely distributed move towards competency base training programs and self-importance directed line of earn oriented ground training has made necessary the search for alternative valid and reliable educational methods for skills training and its maintenance.Fortunately, the cobblers last decade has seen an burst in the use of technology to enhance medical education. nett-based educational programs, figurer die hard practical(prenominal) human beings situations, and high fidelity simulation has compete an increasingly important role in medical education owning to its efficiency, index to provide flexible learning experiences, multimedia capabilities, and economies of scale and power to manage instructional content internationalisticly. Vozenilik et al., (2004)In the last 5 to 10 historic period extensive empirical research has been conducted on the use of computer aided and web-based instruction in medical education where there has been overwhelming buy at for these mediums of instruction. Unfortunately the literature is strikingly sparse on the use of Web based instruction for procedural skills training and in the few studies where empirical research has been carried out debate designs were not robust enou gh to view as interrogation or had inconclusive results.LITERATURE REVIEWA recapitulation of the literature was conducted to ascertain what pass water had been done in the field of Web based learning, medical education and procedural skills training. A CINAHL and Medline search was carried out exploring all citations up to June 2010. The search using Medical Subjects Headings (MeSH) Computer back up Instruction, ne bothrk, CME returned 322 publications. Adding the MeSH term critique returned 21 recapitulations of which four were relevant. Replacing CME with adjective Skills Training produced and one noteworthy empirical research musical theme and 2 publications worthy of discussion.Relevant bodyatic suss outs of the literature are summarized in the table below3 gentleAuthor / ap stoppageeeFindings round off Conclusions sagaciousness of the Review lucre-Based acquisition in Health Professionals A Meta- abstract take a crap et al.,2008201 eligible studies with qualitative or comparative studies of mesh based learning accounting for 56 publications meshing formats were equivalent to non-Internet formats in terms of learner satisfaction and changes in acquaintance, skills and behavior. Internet based learning is educationally beneficial. encyclopaedic work with a robust study design. Skills outcomes include communication with patients, keep-sustaining appraisal, medication dosing, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and lumbar puncture. Unfortunately the study had almost(prenominal) limitations as numerous publications were poorly designed with low methodological quality, without daring and reliableness state for assessment scores and with widely varying interventionsWhat the meta analysis did advert was that no yet studies comparing Internet based interventions with traditional methods or no intervention were merited as these types of studies would intimately invariably be in favour of Internet Based interventions. The author of the review s uggested that the minds that warranted further research would be when and should Internet based learning be utilize and how could it be effectively implemented giving impetus to the exploration of Internet based skills training and maintenance.TitleAuthor / DateFindingsReview ConclusionsAssessment of the ReviewThe Effectiveness of Computer-Aided (CAL) Self-Instructional Programs in Dental EducationRosenberg et al.20031024 articles systemati anticipatey reviewed.12 publications included in the final review. Five studies significantly favored CAL.CAL is as effective as other methods of t all(prenominal)ing and can be employ as an adjunct to traditional education or as a means of self-instruction.This study is a comprehensive review of controlled randomise studies with clear and relevant inclusion criteria assessed with well inter and intra rated reliability.The reviewer limited the study to dental students. Forms of Computer Aided Instruction was not clearly defined or contract in the inclusion criteria. It is unclear whether web based studies were included. The skills referred to in the studies were dental diagnostic not procedural skills.The apparent famine of studies assessing procedural skills justified the investigation undertaken by this dissertation.TitleAuthor / DateFindingsReview ConclusionsAssessment of the ReviewInternet-based medical education a realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances.Wong et al.2010249 papers met their inclusion criteria.Learners were more likely to accept a stemma if it offered a perceived advantage over available meshing alternatives, if it was well-heeled to use proficiently, had elements of interactivity and gave formative feedback.This study is a realist review and the methodological analysis used answered the question of the study which aimed to provide a theory determined criteria to guide phylogenesis and evaluation of Internet based weapons.The findings and guidelines suggested in this review would later be incorporated in the design of the resource to be investigated in this dissertation.TitleAuthor / DateFindingsReview ConclusionsAssessment of the RevieweLearning a review of Internet-based continuing medical education (CME).Wuton et al.200416 studies met their eligibility criteriaInternet based CME programs were as effective as traditional formats of CMEA comprehensive and appropriate search of databases. Randomized controlled mental tests of Internet based education in practicing health care professionals.These results showed that Internet based interventions do have a place in CME and that these effects on skills behavior warrants further investigation.TitleAuthor / DateReview ConclusionsAssessment of the publicationProcedures can be learned on the Web a randomized study of ultrasound-guided vascular access training.Chenkin et al.2008Web based tutorial may be an serviceable alternative to didactic teaching for learning of procedural skillsA randomized contr ol trial with non inferiority data analysis. The non inferiority margin was specified at a 10% margin even the actual tot up of correctment was not specified. Blinding bias was not assured and the trial relied on the reputation of the investigator. No mention of inter rated reliability was made. notwithstanding its inherent weaknesses, the trial suggested that web based intervention is as good as the alternatives however, the study incorporated the use of simulation and live models to teach the actual procedural skill.David Cook is a prolific writer of many reviews and publications investigating Internet based formats in medical education. His noteworthy publications Web based learning pros, cons and controversies Cook, (2007) and Where are we with Web based education Cook,( 2006) extolled the benefits overcoming barriers of surmount and time with novel instructional methods, and extenuated the disadvantages which included social isolation, upfront be and technical difficultie s of Web based education. He reason that Web based instruction can be a potentially powerful tool and strongly recommended that the focus of future studies should concentrate on the timing and industry of Web based learning tools.Summary of literature quite a littleThe review of the literature has outlined the use of Web based procedural skills training as an area that requires further research. Empirical research and systematic reviews that has been carried out thus far has been limited. The literature research conducted for this dissertation (though in its self may have been limited) was unable to find publications exploring the whole use of the Internet as a means of procedural skills training and skills maintenance.Justification and Learning needs analysisTo assess the effectiveness of an Internet based learning resource in the context of procedural skills training, a skill had to be elect that was relevant, involved both a physical and mental task, and had the potential of de caying. A procedural skill is defined as the mental ( intimacy) and drive activities (behaviour) required to execute a manual task and usually involves patient contact. Kovacs (1997). Furthermore, a learning needs analysis was undertaken to assess the value of this stem choice.JustificationIntubation with a Laryngeal Airway Device (LAD) was chosen as the representative procedural skill. When a patient collapses from a cardiac or respiratory cause, timely control of the patients breathing and airway with root on delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation have resulted in life saving pick and neurological recovery. The LAD is a breathing maintenance device that can, with nominal training, be inserted effortlessly into the mouth of the patient allowing for breathing and oxygenation. It is increasingly world used in the repertoire of techniques available to frontline practitioners (practitioners first on call to resuscitation events) in emergencies where th e technique has proven to be wakeful to use and life saving in the management of an airway crisis. Kette, (2005). In a survey of family medicine practitioners, all practitioners surveyed agreed that insertion of an LAD during a resuscitation procedure was a core procedural skill that most practitioners were required to perform in any setting 86% admitting that they had been called upon at some point to perform the procedure. Wetmore et al., (2005). Insertion of a LAD with acquaintance of the patients anatomy, indication and contraindication for use and technique of use both under a controlled setting and in an emergency is representative of a procedural skill a frontline practitioners is expected to perform.Learning needs analysisA key step in developing an effective educational website is performing a learning needs analysis to determine what the learning needs the resource hopes to address are and why these needs were not met by existing learning or teaching arrangements. Cook Dupras, ( 2004).A questionnaire not priorly validated, making use of closed type questions, were used to assess three broad areas knowledge and training, skills application and Internet accessibility. Eleven frontline practitioners were asked to provide an indication of how often they were called to insure resuscitation or airway management situations in the last twain years. They were surveyed regarding training received in LAD im send off and insertion, their desire to obtain more information or skills updating, and whether there was a perceived need for Internet-based continuing medical education courses on LAD usage and canulisation. Their attendances at CME workshops in the last year were surveyed and the barriers to CME workshop attendance were assessed. The respondents were surveyed regarding access to the Internet and previous exposure to e-learning modules. This was done to assess whether the uptake of the resource would be slanted towards participants with Internet access, frequent Internet uses or previous e-learning experiences.The results of the learning needs analysis showed that most respondents (90%) received exposure to the device. It is a requirement of their sway as frontline practitioners, to be Acute Life Support (ALS) trained where usage of the device in resuscitation is taught. Half the respondents indicated that they were not comfortable with their level of knowledge and 63% mat unconfident about inserting the device as they were on average, only exposed to two resuscitation scenarios per year. All had Internet access at work and at home and half had previous experience of online learning. Only one percent of the respondents were able to attend a CME session in the last year, citing lack of time and convenience as the main reasons. 80% of respondents were kindle in taking courses through the Internet, as continuous education attri neverthelesse are a requirement of a license to practice in medicine. Interest in the topic was high and given the above self-appraisal, it was felt that the course was needed and should appeal to this nation.METHODSThe method section is dealt with in two parts. The first will focus on the education and design of a Web based educational resource and the second on the evaluation of the resource.1. phylogeny and designThe idea was to develop an educational resource that could be used to train, reinforce knowledge and maintain a procedural skill by employing and integrating principles of effective adult learning with the unique features of the web. The development was driven by educational needs and outcomes of learning needs analysis completed by participants in a previous part of this study.1.1 Development TheoriesThe course design reflected Adult Learning Principles and the aim of the course was to improve knowledge (cognition), integration of attitude changes (confidence) and in so doing result in a change in behaviour (competency). Gale (1986). With accessibility of the W eb based educational resource, it was hoped that the resource would be accessed frequently until the task becomes automatic or accessed as a refresher when required or at regular intervals. The resource incorporated principals that were shown to be effective. It was centered on the learners needs, was focused on a limited task and recognised past experiences of the learner (Gale 1986).The theories used in the development of the resource includedExperiential Learning Theory, which think that experiential learning should have personal relevance, should be self-initiated and lead to distributive effects on the learner. Rodgers (1969)Constructivist Theory where learning is an active process with learners constructing new ideas and concepts based upon past and current knowledge. Bruner (1966) entropy Processing Theory where knowledge is presentation in sequences or chunking to accommodate hornswoggle circumspection spans (Miller 1956).The educational resource strived to be pedagogi cally sound uniquely applying these principles online. reading was presented in small chunks in a sequential fashion, was self-contained, had synergistic components and contained assessments with beat feedback. Online communication did not occur in real time as which happens with video conferencing and online chat rooms, instead the resource used communication that was asynchronous where participants logged on, viewed and downloaded course substantial, read postings and submitted interactive tasks. The advantage of using an asynchronous format was that learners and/or the instructor did not need to be online at the aforesaid(prenominal) time allowing the participant to work at his or her own pace. The asynchronous nature of this web based learning environment allowed for barriers of time, location and expense to be overcome. Sanoff (2005)1.2 Moodle DescriptionUniversity College Londons (UCL) Moodle was the platform used to develop the educational resource. thither are many appl ications offering free alternatives to the commercial software WebCTTM and BlackboardTM, however the UCL Moodle was chosen as a matter of convenience because it was accessible, independent of specific operating systems, fit for purpose and easy to use without much technical computer knowledge thereby potentially removing barriers to any future course design and development..Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is software freely available to use and was developed by Dougiamas. Moodle. org (1999). The Moodle software was designed on pedagogical principles that encourage learner interaction in a virtual learning environment. Moodle is a course management system used to support Web-based courses and has a number of innovative tools that could be used to create courses that promoted collaborative learning. Moodle is able to run without modification on Unix, Linux, FreeBSD, Windows, Mac OS and Netware. (Moodle. Org). subsequently an initial learning curve, the p rogram was easy to use with simple but comprehensive online instructions. Moodle It did not require pre-existing computer programming knowledge, and in fact the author of this dissertation considered herself a novice computer user.Moodle is create verbally in hypertext pre-processor (PHP) which is HTML embedded scripting language used to create can-do Web pages.PHP allows for connecting to remote servers, checking netmail, URL encoding and setting cookies. It offers good connectivity to many databases including MySQL, and PostgreSQL,which Moodle uses as a single database. MySQL is arelational database management systemthat runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. (www.php.net).Moodle had the support for easily displaying multimedia aspects of the educational resource and the interface could be used in over 70 native language translations. The Web based educational resource was easily built up using multimedia activity modules and design elements, whi ch included with easy navigationAuthentication and enrollment,Syndication with a chat forum made available to others as newsfeeds,Current narrate based didactic teaching,Interactive quizzes allowing import/export in a number of methodsHyperlinked resources to provide for branched learning,The use of a Wikipedia,A rubric of commonly used terms,Instructional video presentations.All the attributes of the Moodle made for an international transportable tool ideal for knowledge presentation, learner interaction, comments and reflection, dynamic and interactive assessments, flexibility, extendibility, and most importantly, support for autonomous learning and continued educational development around the world. The only noteworthy disadvantage of using the UCL Moodle was an imposed instructional design.1.3 Resource DescriptionThe educational resource was namedVIRTUAL emailprotected Online Laryngeal Airway Device training. Virtual suggesting both the virtual reality of an Internet based ge nerated environment and the adjective, meaning practically or almost Collins English Dictionary ( 2008). The Web based educational resource was developed for distance learning and contained all the elements of a totally Internet delivered educational resource. The content of the course was drawn from the authors personal experience using the Laryngeal device peer reviewed journal articles, manufactures product information and videos downloaded from the Internet. authority for the use of copywriter-restricted material was sought and obtained where appropriate.1.3.1 Screen DesignThe screen design refers to how the information was arranged and presented on the display screen. The guidelines used followed those (amongst others) suggested by defending squad HCI Style Guide (1992). The screen was kept simple, orderly, clutter free and unchanging with a limited, non-dominating colour palate of four colours sullen, black, white and blue green, a combination that has been shown to cau se little fatigue and distraction. Kelley (1988). The content of each lesson was presented on a plain white background with black text in a non-jarring in evening gown style font that made the lessons easy to read. Clark (1997). One template was used and the navigation bar, top bar and individual lesson heading bars kept the same with only the content of each lesson changing. All the content was displayed statically on one screen with individual lessons accessed by sc ringlet vertically down to the individual lesson. Unnecessary menus and long selection lists were avoided. This allowed for an general view of the content, minimized pointer and eye movements and caused less distraction with easy navigation. (Gruneberg 1978). A discussion forum, interactive quizzes and an end of resource examination were included to allow engagement and self-assessment. The quizzes and examination included a range of question types multiple choice questions, true/ false, photo matching and random vi ctimize answer matching type questions. These varieties of questions were shown to improve the learning experiences of adult learners. (Mackway-Jones, 1998). Information was provided in chunks and the writing style kept informal, with plain, simple language and in conversational tone with some elements of humour. There were fewer than 60 character positions on a standard 80 character line, spacing surrounded by characters were 25 50% of character height and spacing between lines were gibe to the character height, this to increase reading efficiency.1.3.2 Course ContentThe course material was presented as text, graphics, power point presentations, hyperlinks and video demonstrations of the procedural skill presented in animation and on an actual patient. Knowledge was provided in quin short lessons that followed the natural sequence of usage and intubation with a Laryngeal device. Aims of the resource and objectives of each lesson were stated at the beginning of the course. Her e too a glossary of commonly used terms and a baseline knowledge assessment quiz were included. Each lesson was kept succinct with hyperlinks to websites and folders for those seeking additional information. This was to limit download times. Each lesson was concluded with an interactive quiz used to reinforce and test the knowledge learnt. Instant responses were provided to the quizzes after submission with suggestions to either revisit the lesson or to continue depending on the results obtained in the quizzes. The resource was concluded with an end of course examination and the course was predicted to take 1 to 2 hours to complete.The resource content was accessed with a secured password with all content downloadable by way of an Internet connection. All the participants were supplied with a secure party email address and all the ISTCs had Internet access. Permission was requested for the use of company time and resources e.g. airway device training mannequin and time during the running(a) day for those who chose to access the resource at work. Participants were supplied with instructions on how to use Microsoft Word and how to log on to and navigate the Moodle site. The course material was available online for two weeks with access monitored.1.4 Pilot StudyThe aim of the pilot study was to assess the ease of navigation, gauge the time it took to complete the course, the integrity of the hyperlinks and the validity and reliability of the content and examination questions. Font preferences, layout and download speeds were also assessed.A prototype of the resource was tested on a selected sample of five participants of similar profile to the participants used in the study. The participants of the pilot study were excluded from fighting(a) in the actual study. An external panel of three Consultant Anaesthetists and two trainee Registrar Anaesthetists where used to provided expert advice. The Consultant Anaesthetists were selected based on their finicky inte rest in emergency medicine or difficult intubation scenario teaching. A few typographic errors were corrected, aims and objectives were clarified, difficult navigational issues were corrected and some content deemed repetitive and lengthy by the pilot participants were excluded before rolling out the resource. These changes however, were minor and further usability studies were deemed unnecessary.1.5 Content ValidationThe content presented was current, evidence based and peer reviewed for content validity by the panel of experts (made up of three Consultant Anaesthetists and two trainee Registrar Anaesthetists), who deemed the content to be relevant and appropriate. The panel of experts and the pilot participants also judged good face validity.2. Evaluation of the ResourceThe study evaluates effectiveness and acceptance of a Web based educational resource used to train and maintain a learnt procedural skill in the context of continuous medical Education (CME). The evaluation of the resource was undertaken in two parts. First the effectiveness of the resource was evaluated and the endpoints measured were changes in knowledge, confidence and technical ability. This evaluation made use of a summational framework redefined by Saettler (1990) which takes place after interaction with the resource. A before and after interventional ipsative assessment was undertaken where participants performance was compared to their own over a period of time.The second part of the evaluation was undertaken to assess the acceptability of the Web based educational resource as a medium for procedural skills training and this was done by way of an evaluation questionnaire completed by the participants after course completion.2.1 Participants and SettingThe participants and settings were specifically targeted, as they would ultimately be elicit stakeholders and end users of this type of resource. The research was conducted at five fretfulness UK TM Independent Centers (ISTCs) on pra ctitioners employed at these facilities. The ISTCs are part of the governments porta to reduce long NHS waiting times for elective surgery by adding increased capacity and alternative treatment venues for patients. There are slightly 25 ISTCs in the United Kingdom with Care UK TM represents 20% of this market. The ISTCs were chosen as a setting becauseThey are not part of the UK NHS medical training scheme and therefore have no formal programs of medical training or teaching that similar grades of staff in the NHS would receive.Contractual obligations of the ISTC contract decreed that the ISTCs could not employ medical practitioners from the NHS therefore, most of the medical staff employed at the ISTCs have trained abroad and are waiting either to enter a formal life path within the NHS or wanting UK work experience. This situation has resulted in a mixture of nationalities, non-uniform medical training and medical staff with differing levels of post qualification experience an d more importantly, a high staff turnover. (ref)These resulting factors were conducive to a system of competency-based appraisals and continuous medical education, which could be addressed with Web, based educational resources.Participants in the study were all frontline practitioners employed at Care UK TM ISTCs, which employs 48 practitioners of this grade. This represents 50% of all frontline practitioners employed in ISTCs throughout the UK. This intended sample size of 48 adequately represented the wider population in this type of analysis. frontline practitioners are the first practitioners on call to the resuscitation of a collapsed patient where they would be called upon to secure the patients airway and ensure oxygenation until the Anaesthetists or the resuscitation team arrives. It is expected that frontline practitioners are trained and certified with acute cardiac and life support skills and confident in dealing with clinical emergencies. In reality, analysis has shown t hat frontline practitioners in these ISTCs, though some trained and certified, rarely use these skills cod to the infrequent nature of resuscitation clinical emergencies, making these scenarios potentially high-risk events when they do occur.Frontline practitioners are made up of Resident Medical Officers (RMOs), anesthetic agent Assistants (ODAs) and recovery Room Practitioners (RNs). RMOs are doctors who have completed their medical training and have at least two years post graduate work experience as qualified doctors. They are employed to provide 24 hours on site medical management of patients at the ISTCs and like general practitioners (RACGP 2006) and doctors outside NHS academic hospitals, are usually first on call for emergencies and the sole source of medical advice on the premises on which they work. Anaesthetic assistants and recovery room practitioners are nursing practitioners
remainder Between graphic symbol of monetary officer and restraintDifference mingled with Role of trea trustworthyr and ascendency with respect to Financial corporal GovernanceOrganization Chart of the Financial ManagementThe chief finance executive works directly low the president or the managing film director of the go with. Besides routine network, the person in charge keeps the gore of Directors informed about every last(predicate) the phases of traffic activeness, including economics, social and political trainings affecting the backing behavior. He also furnishes information about the pecuniary status of the companion by reviewing it from time to time. The chief finance executive may affirm many officers under him to carry out his give out. Broadly his officiates ar change integrity into two typesTreasury functionControl functionsAn illustrative geological formation chart of finance function of anxiety in a big organization is shown belowOrganizat ion of the Financial Management FunctionRole of financial officerThe main lineament of financial officer is that he refers to the financial officer and then looks at the task of financing and its related activities. Treasury always deals with transp bent assets and so the main grapheme of financial officer is to look at the currency and its early(a) liquid assets.Some grand tasks of Treasurer are as followsHe formulate the whole capital structure of the organization in accordance to goals of the organization and then to implement it to the organization.He also performs the numerate of liquid assets and all type of bullion.He basically acts as a currencyier.He plays the intent of an agency signatory on payment cheques including the authority to approve much(prenominal) cheques.Reconciliation in bank accounts.He manages the overall credit function of the firm.He also has the authority to utilize the wasted capital of the company whenever on that point is any type of short limit beneficial investments.He also makes the companies policies according to decision on mete out discounts and vendor payment.He also obtains relationships with bankers and vendors.All of the above mentioned functions of financial officer are implemented with the help of cash manger, finance manager and credit manager.Role of visitlerAs we fill already seen that the treasurer deals with liquid assets, the declareler of the organization has to record the exertions of these liquid assets. It is the combined and effective working(a) of both the de smashments that give rise to an effective system of sexual controls. Controller is a financial officer responsible for score and control.He does the undermentioned functionsRecords all the transactions in the general ledger, the accounts receivables and the accounts payables, sub-ledger, transaction with respect to furbish up assets much(prenominal) as depreciation, inventory control, etc.He looks into the aspects of taxes and insurance.He also keeps track of companys short margin investments by recording and reconciling the transaction with those of the brokerage firms.He carefully looks into the regulatory aspects and implementation of the companys policy on trade discounts and recievables aging.He always acts as the planning director.He keeps a record of the attendance of the employees, their movement timings so as to facilitate in preparing the payroll.He reports information to the management.The office bearer who assists the dominance in accomplishing the above tasks is tax manager, data processing manager, cost accounting manager and accounting manager. then the functions of financial accounting, internal audit, taxation, management accountings and control, budget-planning and control are consummate in this manner.Controllers and Treasurers functions in the Indian ContextThe controller and the treasurer are essentially American terms. Basically the American pattern of dividing the financial executives functions is not being widely followed in India. We do attain a add together of copies having officers with the designation of the controller. The controller or the financial controller in India, by and large performs the function of a chief accountant or management accountant. The officer with the backing of treasurer can also be fix in a few companies in India.The controllership functions can prove to be useful under the Indian context, only when presently some of these duties are performed by the company secretary in India. His duties, for example includes asset control and protection, maintaining records and preparing reports and government reporting. The economic appraisal function is generally performed at the centerfieldshade level in India. Some other functions, such as internal audit, can be brought within the fold of the controllership functions, if this concept is developed in the Indian context.It should be realized that the financial controll er does not control finances he or she develops, uses and interpret information- some of which forget be financial for management control and planning. For this reason, the financial controller may just be called as controller. Management of finance or money is a separate and important activity. Traditionally, the accountants have been involved in managing money in India. But the difference in managing money resources should be appreciated.In the American business, the management of finance is treated as a separate activity and is being performed by the treasurer. The title of treasurer has not found esteem in India to the extent the controller has. Some of the functions performed by the treasurer in the American context are again discharged by the company secretary in India. Insurance coverage is an example in this regard. The function of maintaining relations with investors may now assume consequence in India because of the development in the Indian capital markets and the in creasing awareness among investors.The general title, financial manager, seems to more popular in India. This title is also better than the title of treasurer since it conveys the functions involved. The main function of the financial manager in India should be the managements of companys funds. The financial duties may often be combined with others. But the significance of not combining the financial managers duties with others should be realized. The managing of funds- a very expensive resource- is a business activity requiring extraordinary skill on the part of financial manager. He should vouch the optimum use of money under various constraints. He should, therefore be allowed to devote his full zippo and time in managing the money resources only.Functions of Treasurer and the ControllerCASE oeuvreThe eccentric of the in collective treasurers has changed from a traditional one of securing funds and managing financial risk to a strategical one of driving overall business i nitiatives. In this new role, treasures have the prime responsibility of advocating better corporeal validation principles in the company, both as a means to cleanse the parcel of landholder repute and to enhance investor confidence. This has find very important because the incorporate governance practices of the companies are being placed under heavy interrogatory from the regulators and investors following revelations of corporate malfeasance, deception and fraud. This article discusses the role of the treasurers in mental synthesis a sound governance structure in the companies.DescriptionThe beating in Satyam Computers Limited, Indias fourth largest software company, has brought the fill in of corporate governance in limelight more particularly in India. It is however unfortunate that such important takingss gain prominence only subsequently incidents of corporate frauds. The issue of corporate governance was earlier debated when the developments at Enron and WorldCo m rocked the origination.As India is on a growth trajectory and is having ambitions of being ranked in the counters of the developed economies, the issue of corporate governance only being surfaced after the Satyam scam is a grave concern. We may claim that the Satyam scam is an isolated case in corporate India, but it is more important to see how the rest of world assesses our seriousness towards the ethics of corporate governance. Do we take the ethics of corporate governance seriously and deeply and drift it away from its ornamental value to run an enterprise towards the principal goal for which the corporate governance term was coined? Largely the practice is to decorate the wag, which is at the helm of affairs of corporate governance, with hatful whom the promoters of the company believe ordain add some ornamental value to the enterprise. Many a times the promoters induct known people onto the board. Having said that companies prefer the decorative value of the board over its usefulness. Thus one can comfortably conclude that the Satyam fiasco is nothing but a true reflection of what routinely and pervasively passes for corporate governance.The role of treasurer is crucial to todays business especially in ensuring that the company has the cash that it needs to operate the business, adequate risk management systems are in place and finally ensuring that the company complies with the various international standards. The treasurer and cash have a consanguineous relationship and the recent fiasco of Satyam Computers reveals a story of siphoning the cash from the companys balance sheet which puts the role of the treasurer or CFO nothing but on dubious distinction. By the uncorrupted definition of a treasurer one understands that wherever there is cash in the company, the treasurer has to be present there. Though the Satyam fraud appears to be a systemic fraud by the senior management, nevertheless such frauds can be mitigated to some extent if corporate governance is compiled by the treasurer. In such a scenario it becomes altogether more important for corporate treasurers to revisit the basics of corporate governance and their role in inculcating the principles of corporate governance in a company. This article highlights and revisits the role compete by the treasurers or CFO in the compliance of corporate governance.Treasurer in DetailThe Treasurers role is the mo most important function on the display board after that of the Chair. Financial accountability is fundamental to not-for-profit organisations. If your members have no confidence in your ability to control and account for finances, they will have no confidence in the organisation as a whole.The Treasurer may find a reluctance amongst non-financially trained board members to take any responsibility for finance. As a Board or governing committee however, the group as a whole has to share responsibility and decision-making and it will therefore be an important part of t he Treasurers role to take care that others understand the information that is being presented and the implications thereof. It is particularly important that the Treasurer attends meetings regularly in shape that others can ask questions and be sure that they have a full understanding of the connectives financial position.PurposeTo manage and report on the associations finances.ResponsibilitiesTo carry out the responsibilities of a member of the Board of Directors.To lead budget planning and preparations.To varan the budget and inform the Board as to whether projections are turning out as predicted in order that joint decisions can be made on appropriate adjustments.To ensure the Boards financial policies are being followed.To report to the Board of Directors and the general membership on finances.To prepare any required financial reporting forms.To ensure tax regulations are complied with VAT.To manage and maintain bank accounts, ensuring the association is get the best rate of return for funds held and moving money between accounts asTo oversee all financial transactions.To sign cheques (with a second signatory from the Board or staff).To chair finance sub-committee, if one exists. financial officer WORKING WITH A BOOKKEEPER.Most treasures do not have bookkeeping expertise, and they need not and ideally should not spend their time on day-to-day financial administration. Wherever possible, a suitably experienced/ adequate paid (or volunteer) bookkeeper should be responsible for banking, for processing payments, for keeping full and faithful accounts of all receipts and expenditure and for producing financial reports.This leaves the Treasurers time for the more strategic and managerial aspects of the role, in particular budgeting and planning. The Treasurer does however need to monitor the work of the bookkeeper as ultimate responsibility for the accuracy of records lies with his or her role.If your association needs to submit formal annual statement s to tax or other government authorities, these may be prepared by your bookkeeper or by external accountants. Requirements will vary in different countries. In the UK, all limited companies must have their final accounts prepared by a chartered accountant.Becoming a Good TreasurerA treasurer does not have to study accounting or business in order to do well at this position.A good treasurer will be characterized by the following traits1.Honesty and IntegrityAs treasurer you are not given free liberty to do whatever you like. Rather, you are accountable to God, the fellowship and the committee. Therefore, perform your task flop and professionally.2.CarefulnessThis characteristic will help you maintain accurate and street smart records. Be careful to record all transactions. Be careful when intervention money because ultimately this money belongs to God.3.Common championCommon sense is necessary in order to catch errors early.4.Open booksIt is good to maintain an open book policy concerning financial matters. Any member of the fellowship, after consultation with the committee, should be able to see the financial state of the fellowship. This will help build accountability and credibility for the entire fellowship.5.Watchful eyeThe treasurer needs to be vigilant in tracking income and expenses. These amounts should be compared with the current budget.6.Faithfulness to GodUltimately, the treasurer brings honor to God by the proper exercise of his/her task. Therefore, view your position of treasurer as a way to show your faithfulness to God. Heres an excellent maxim Gods work through with(p) in Gods time will receive Gods provision.Controller Vs Treasurer date the term Controller is used differently in Sweden than in America, there is reason for a clear explanation of the differences between Controller and Treasurer. The item that a Controller in Sweden has a broader role than the Controller in America can be explained largely by the function of the treasurer that has those duties overlapping those of the Swedish Controller.In large firms, the financial operations overseen by the CFO will split into two branches, with one headed by the treasurer and the other by the controller. The Controllers responsibility are primarily accounting in nature. Costs accounting as well as budgets and forecast concerning internal consumptions, lies within the area of the Controller.The treasurers responsibility fall into the decision areas most unremarkably associated with financial management, invest financing and asset management. The organization chart may give you false impression that a clear splits exists between controller and treasurer responsibilities. In a well-functioning firm, information will flow easily back and forth between both branches. In small firms the treasurer and controller functions may be combined into one position with a resulting commingling of activities.Traditionally the role of controller has been that of a number cruncher, computing financial data in order to prepare reports. The assignment associated with the controller role is in no way set in stone, different organizations have different duties attached to the Controller.The final statement where the controller should be seen as a long range developer of executives, hints at a prominent role when it comes to developing human resources within organizations. In order for the controllers department to become developers of accounting and operating executives they have to have an intimate relation to the military force of the organization.